Teaching Imitation If the child is attending to the environment, but does not imitate others naturally, you will need to use direct teaching of imitation.
Teaching of Imitation using the 3 Rs Adult: Shakes a maraca and says “Do this” Child: Does not respond or gives an incomplete response Adult: Physically assists child to shake the maraca and says “This is shaking”
Teaching Imitation • When teaching imitation, it is often helpful to start with imitation with objects, especially toys • Start with toys or movements that will come easily with minimal prompting
Teaching of Imitation using the 3Rs: Have a goal in mind Adult: Pushes a toy bus and says “Do this” Child: Does not respond or gives an incomplete response Adult: Physically assists child to push the bus and says “This is pushing the bus”
Direct Teaching of Imitation What Does it Become? Continue to teach imitation skills such as: Put the boy in the bus Drive the bus to the school Honk the horn on the bus (beep beep) Take the boy off the bus and go to school The targets are sequenced to become a meaningful play activity. The toys are made available in the classroom play area and visuals are provided along with adult support to implement the play sequence in another setting with other children.
Guidelines for Teaching Imitation Imitative play may occur on the floor or at a table depending on the child Have matched toy sets if possible to allow for immediate imitation
Setting Up Observational Imitation • Identical toy sets • Model how to play with the toys slowly and systematically • Use repetition early on • Limit number of toys initially • Sit across from each other and limit space between • Imitative play may occur on the floor or at a table depending on the child
Visual Supports First: Play with Friend Then: Swing
Video Modeling • Multiple studies have shown that video modeling is beneficial for teaching play skills (Fragale, 2014) • Video modeling can be used to teach solitary play and social play
Video model examples • Dollhouse - Playing w/ Dollhouse (video Modeling) • Car wash - Video Model: Toy Car Garage • Tea time - Tea Pot Video Modeling • Playing catch - Video Modeling Social Skills- Playing Catch
Video Modeling:Guidelines for Implementing Shukla-Mehta, Miller & Callahan (2009) • May need to add prompts, reinforcers and error correction procedures • Consider video length based on student’s attending skills - children who are able to attend for 1-min are more likely to benefit • Keep the videos brief; more viewings are better than one time • All types of models seem to be effective
Social Engagement with Peers Peer Training and Supporting Social Engagement with Peers
Options to Increase Peer Opportunities in Early Childhood Programs • Reverse inclusion • Coordinating with partner programs (Headstart, Great Start, Regular preschool) • Sharing time with another program (e.g. morning ASD class / afternoon regular preschool)
Peer Training To get your friend’s attention, hand him a toy Play with the toys your friend is playing with When your friend talks, you say something too Get excited and tell your friend how he/she is doing Ask your friend to show you what he/she is doing Ask for a turn or give a turn Ask your friend to make a choice Examples of Instruction Cards Used to Train Peers
Peer Training:Instruction Cards Used to Train Peers “Which one do you want?” (Picture here) “That’s great!” (Picture here) Make a choice Get excited “My turn” (Picture here) “Let me see” (Picture here) Take a turn Show me
Most Important Skills for Social Engagement and Interaction Initiation and Responding
Joint Attention Joint Attention
JointAttention • Social‐communicative behavior in which two people share attentional focus on an object or event, for the sole purpose of sharing that interesting object with eachother (Bakeman& Adamson) • Critical for social development, language acquisition, & cognitive development
Development of JointAttention • Joint Attention is observed in typically developing children by 3-9 months of age and is well established by 18 months. • The ability to coordinate attention with a social partner is a major milestone of infancy that is critical to active participation in social learning opportunities and languagedevelopment. (White et al., 2011; Mundy & Willoughby, 1998)
Types of JointAttention • Responding to jointattention • Ability to follow direction of gazeorpoint • Initiating jointattention • Ability to use direction of gaze or point to direct the attention ofothers • (Seibert et al., 1982)
Types of JointAttention: Social and Non-Social • Child points to something he wants and shifts gaze to the parent and then back to what he wants. Some children with ASD can do this. (non-social) • Child points to something because he wants to show it to someone else (social). This is more difficult for children with ASD. Difference is intention
Social Responsiveness: Steps for Teaching Joint Attention Point to an item such as a toy hanging from the ceiling, a flashing light, or a jack in the box and say “look!” Use an exaggerated gesture (e.g., point from the participant’s eyes toward the item) to prompt the child to orient toward the item After the child looks at the item, model a comment or gesture for the child to imitate (e.g., “wow”, “silly”, “uh-oh”, hand over mouth) Provide a gestural prompt for the child to look back at you Then provide social reinforcement (e.g., smiles, tickles) (Taylor & Hoch, 2008)
Strategies to Teach • Activity interspersed with high interest, novel toys • Most to least prompting with fading (time delay or graduated guidance) • Natural reinforcement (tangible if needed) • Gaining access to item • Social engagement
Teach “Look” – Toy and Eye Gaze Looking at Items • Get on the child’s level • Use exaggerated expressions or movements • Touch what you are talking about at first before pointing to items far away • Use the word “look” and then point to show objects of interest • Show a car or ball and then push it away. Point and say “look.”
Teach “Look” – Toy and Eye Gaze Eye Gaze • Hold preferred items near your face • Put something unusual on your face, like a sticker, or put on a hat or something silly • Have the child lay on the floor and look at the child with an interesting item on or near your face/head • Play the flashlight game. Turn off the lights and shine the light on objects (unless this makes the child nervous)
Teaching Joint Attention: Fun Routines • When unexpected or surprising events occur during the course of the day (e.g., the doorbell ringing, a jack‐in‐the box popping up, a music box stopping, a block tower falling over), look at your child, make an exaggerated look of surprise (e.g., raise your eyebrows, smile and open your mouth wide, make a gasping sound, cover your mouth with your hand), and say enthusiastically, “Wow!” or “Uh‐oh!” • You can also set up play activities so that a surprise event occurs periodically and turn this activity into a game. Toys with unexpected sounds or actions work well.
Teaching Joint Attention: Follow Point/Gaze • Hide objects the child wants and teach him/her to follow your point, head turn, and eye gaze to find them. Gather the child’s favorite toys (e.g., puzzle pieces, balls to put down a chute, trains to go on a track) and place them in different parts of the room. When starting, the objects should be close to the child and at least partially visible. • Start the activity and make it clear the objects are missing. When the child needs the item, shrug your shoulders and say, “Hmm, where is it?” Then point to the object and say, “There it is!” • When your child is able to find the objects consistently, try turning your head in the direction of the object instead of pointing to it. Eventually you can try just shifting your eyes to indicate the general direction of the object. Be sure to use objects that are highly motivating for your child.
Joint Attention • Situations that are unusual, but not anxiety producing will elicit surprise and looking more than routine situations • These situations can also increase communication