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  1. C++ and Java Chris Stork most slides stolen from John Mitchell (chapter 12 & 13)

  2. C++ History • C++ is an object-oriented extension of C • C was designed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs • used to write Unix • based on BCPL • C++ designed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs • His original interest at Bell was research on simulation • Early extensions to C are based primarily on Simula • Called “C with classes” in early 1980’s • Popularity increased in late 1980’s and early 1990’s • Features were added incrementally Classes, templates, exceptions, multiple inheritance, type tests...

  3. C++ Design Goals • Provide object-oriented features in C-based language, without compromising efficiency • Backwards compatibility with C • Better static type checking • Data abstraction • Objects and classes • Prefer efficiency of compiled code where possible • Important principle • If you do not use a feature, your compiled code should be as efficient as if the language did not include the feature. (compare to Smalltalk)

  4. How successful? • Given the design goals and constraints, • this is a very well-designed language • Many users -- tremendous popular success • However, very complicated design • Many specific properties with complex behavior • Difficult to predict from basic principles • Most serious users chose subset of language • Full language is complex and unpredictable • Many implementation-dependent properties • Language for adventure game fans

  5. Further evidence • Many style guides for using C++ “safely” • Many conventions and prohibitions to reduce complexity • CORBA -- don’t inherit implementation • SGI compiler group -- no virtual functions • Others -- ??? See Cargill’sC++ Programming Stylebook or even Stroustrup's The C++ Programming Language, 3rd ed. (also check out http://www.research.att.com/~bs/C++.html)

  6. Significant constraints • C has specific machine model • Access to underlying architecture • No garbage collection • Consistent with goal of efficiency • Need to manage object memory explicitly • Local variables stored in activation records • Objects treated as generalization of structs, so some objects may be allocated on stack • Stack/heap difference is visible to programmer

  7. Overview of C++ • Additions and changes not related to objects • type bool • pass-by-reference • user-defined overloading • function templates • exceptions • …

  8. C++ Object System • Object-oriented features • Classes • Objects, with dynamic lookup of virtual functions • Inheritance • Single and multiple inheritance • Public and private base classes • Subtyping • Tied to inheritance mechanism • Encapsulation

  9. Some good decisions • Public, private, protected levels of visibility • Public: visible everywhere • Protected: within class and subclass declarations • Private: visible only in class where declared • Friend functions and classes • Careful attention to visibility and data abstraction • Allow inheritance without subtyping • Better control of subtyping than without private base classes

  10. Some problem areas • Casts • Sometimes no-op, sometimes not (esp multiple inher) • Lack of garbage collection • Memory management is error prone • Constructors, destructors are helpful though • Objects allocated on stack • Better efficiency, interaction with exceptions • BUT assignment works badly, possible dangling ptrs • Overloading • Too many code selection mechanisms • Multiple inheritance • Efforts at efficiency lead to complicated behavior

  11. Sample class:one-dimenional points class Pt { public: Pt(int xv); Pt(Pt* pv); int getX(); virtual void move(int dx); protected: void setX(int xv); private: int x; }; Overloaded constructor Public read access to private data Virtual function Protected write access Private member data

  12. Virtual functions • Member functions are either • Virtual, if explicitly declared or inherited as virtual • Non-virtual otherwise • Virtual members • Are accessed by indirection through ptr in object • May be redefined in derived (sub) classes • Non-virtual functions • Are called in the usual way. Just ordinary functions. • Not redefinable in derived classes (except overloading) • Pay overhead only if you use virtual functions

  13. Sample derived class Public base class gives supertype class ColorPt: public Pt { public: ColorPt(int xv,int cv); ColorPt(Pt* pv,int cv); ColorPt(ColorPt* cp); int getColor(); virtual void move(int dx); virtual void darken(int tint); protected: void setColor(int cv); private: int color; }; Overloaded constructor Non-virtual function Virtual functions Protected write access Private member data

  14. Run-time representation Point object Point vtable Code for move vptr 3 x ColorPoint object ColorPoint vtable Code for move vptr x 5 Code for darken c blue Data at same offset Function pointers at same offset

  15. Compare to Smalltalk Point class Template Point object Method dictionary x newX:Y: y 2 ... ... 3 move ColorPoint class Template ColorPoint object Method dictionary x newX:Y:C: y 4 color color 5 move red

  16. Why is C++ lookup simpler? • Smalltalk has no static type system • Code p message:pars could refer to any object • Need to find method using pointer from object • Different classes will put methods at different place in method dictionary • C++ type gives compiler some superclass • Offset of data, fctn ptr same in subclass and superclass • Offset of data and function ptr known at compile time • Code p->move(x) compiles to equivalent of (*(p->vptr[1]))(p,x) if move is first fctn in vtable. data passed to member function; see next slide

  17. Calls to virtual functions • One member function may call another class A { public: virtual int f (int x); virtual int g(int y); }; int A::f(int x) { … g(i) …;} int A::g(int y) { … f(j) …;} • How does body of f call the right g? • If g is redefined in derived class B, then inherited f must call B::g

  18. “This” pointer (analogous to self in Smalltalk) • Code is compiled so that member function takes “object itself” as first argument Code int A::f(int x) { … g(i) …;} compiled asint A::f(A *this, int x) { … this->g(i) …;} • “this” pointer may be used in member function • Can be used to return pointer to object itself, pass pointer to object itself to another function, ...

  19. Non-virtual functions • How is code for non-virtual function found? • Same way as ordinary “non-member” functions: • Compiler generates function code and assigns address • Address of code is placed in symbol table • At call site, address is taken from symbol table and placed in compiled code • Butsome special scoping rules for classes • Overloading • Remember: overloading is resolved at compile time • This is different from run-time lookup of virtual function

  20. Scope rules in C++ • Scope qualifiers • binary :: operator, ->, and . • class::member, ptr->member, object.member • A name outside a function or class, • not prefixed by unary :: and not qualified refers to global object, function, enumerator or type. • A name after X::, ptr-> or obj. • where we assume ptr is pointer to class X and obj is an object of class X • refers to a member of class X or a base class of X

  21. Virtual vs Overloaded Functions class parent { public: void printclass() {printf("p ");}; virtual void printvirtual() {printf("p ");}; }; class child : public parent { public: void printclass() {printf("c ");}; virtual void printvirtual() {printf("c ");}; }; main() { parent p; child c; parent *q; p.printclass(); p.printvirtual(); c.printclass(); c.printvirtual(); q = &p; q->printclass(); q->printvirtual(); q = &c; q->printclass(); q->printvirtual(); } Output: p p c c p p p c

  22. Subtyping • Subtyping in principle • A <: B if every A object can be used without type error whenever a B object is required • Example: Point: int getX(); void move(int); ColorPoint: int getX(); int getColor(); void move(int); void darken(int tint); • C++: A <: B if class A has public base class B • This is weaker than necessary. Why? Public members Public members

  23. Independent classes not subtypes class Point { public: int getX(); void move(int); protected: ... private: ... }; class ColorPoint { public: int getX(); void move(int); int getColor(); void darken(int); protected: ... private: ... }; • C++ does not treat ColorPoint <: Point as written • Need public inheritance ColorPoint : public Pt • Why??

  24. Why Subtyping by declaration? • Client code depends only on declared public superclass • In principle, if ColorPoint interface contains Point interface, then any client could use ColorPoint in place of point • However -- offset in virtual function table may differ • Lose implementation efficiency (like Smalltalk) • Without link to inheritance… • subtyping leads to loss of implementation efficiency • Also encapsulation & maintenance issue: • Subtyping based on inheritance is preserved under modifications to base class …

  25. Details, details • This is legal class Point { … virtual Point * move(int); … } class ColorPoint: public Point { … virtual ColorPoint * move(int); … } • But not legal if *’s are removed class Point { … virtual Point move(int); … } class ColorPoint: public Point { …virtual ColorPoint move(int);… } Related to subtyping distinctions for object L-values and object R-values (Non-pointer return type is treated like an L-value for some reason)

  26. Subtyping and Object L,R-Values • If class B : public A { … } Then • B r-value <: A r-value • If x = a is OK, then x = b is OK provided A’s operator = is public • If f(a) is OK, then f(b) is OK provided A’s copy constructor is public • B l-value <: A l-value • B* <: A* • B** <: A** Generally, X <: Y  X* <: Y* is unsound.

  27. Review • Why C++ requires inheritance for subtyping • Need virtual function table to look the same • This includes private and protected members • Subtyping w/o inheritance weakens data abstraction (This is my post facto explanation; I don’t know what designers think.) • Possible confusion regarding inlining • Cannot generally inline virtual functions • Inlining is possible for nonvirtual functions • These are available in C++ • Not in Smalltalk since every lookup is through class Inlining is very significant for efficiency; enables further optimization.

  28. Abstract Classes • Abstract class: • A class without complete implementation • Declare by =0 • Useful because it can have derived classes Since subtyping follows inheritance in C++, use abstract classes to build subtype hierarchies. • Establishes layout of virtual function table (vtable) • Example • Geometry classes in appendix of Mitchell book (A.1.2) • Shape is abstract supertype of circle, rectangle, ...

  29. Shape ReferenceCounted Rectangle RefCounted Rectangle Multiple Inheritance Inherit independent functionality from independent classes

  30. Problem: Name Clashes class A { public: void virtual f() { … } }; class B { public: void virtual f() { … } }; class C : public A, public B { … }; … C* p; p->f(); // error same name in 2 base classes

  31. Possible solutions to name clash • Three general approaches • Implicit resolution • Language resolves name conflicts with arbitrary rule • Explicit resolution • Programmer must explicitly resolve name conflicts • Disallow name clashes • Programs are not allowed to contain name clashes • No solution is always best • C++ uses explicit resolution

  32. Repair to previous example • Rewrite class C to call A::f explicitly class C : public A, public B { public: void virtual f( ) { A::f( ); // Call A::f(), not B::f(); } • Reasonable solution • This eliminates ambiguity • Preserves dependence on A • Changes to A::f will change C::f

  33. vtable for Multiple Inheritance class A { public: int x; virtual void f(); }; class B { public: int y; virtual void g(); virtual void f(); }; class C: public A, public B { public: int z; virtual void f(); }; C *pc = new C; B *pb = pc; A *pa = pc; Three pointers to same object, but different static types.

  34. A B Object and classes C • Offset  in vtbl is used in call to pb->f, since C::f may refer to A data that is above the pointer pb • Call to pc->g can proceed through C-as-B vtbl C object C-as-A vtbl & C::f 0 pa, pc vptr  A object A data C-as-B vtbl pb vptr & B::g 0 B object B data & C::f  C data

  35. Window (D) Text Window (A) Graphics Window (B) Text, Graphics Window (C) Multiple Inheritance “Diamond” • Is interface or implementation inherited twice? • What if definitions conflict?

  36. D A B C Diamond inheritance in C++ • Standard base classes • D members appear twice in C • Virtual base classes class A : public virtual D { … } • Avoid duplication of base class members • Require additional pointers so that D part of A, B parts of object can be shared A part B part C part D part • C++ multiple inheritance is complicated in part because of desire to maintain efficient lookup

  37. C++ Summary • Objects • Created by classes • Contain member data and pointer to class • Classes: virtual function table • Inheritance • Public and private base classes, multiple inheritance • Subtyping: Occurs with public base classes only • Encapsulation • member can be declared public, private, protected • object initialization partly enforced

  38. Language Overview History and design goals Classes and Inheritance Object features Encapsulation Inheritance Types and Subtyping Primitive and ref types Interfaces; arrays Subtype polymorphism and generic programming Java virtual machine Loader and initialization Linker and verifier Bytecode interpreter Security Buffer overflow Java “sandbox” Type safety and attacks Java

  39. History • James Gosling and others at Sun, 1990 - 95 • Oak language for “set-top box” • small networked device with television display • graphics • execution of simple programs • communication between local program and remote site • no “expert programmer” to deal with crash, etc. • Internet application • simple language for writing programs that can be transmitted over network

  40. Gates Saw Java as Real Threat Publicly, Microsoft chief Bill Gates was nearly dismissive when he talked in 1996 about Sun Microsystems' Java programming language. But in internal company discussions, he wrote to staff members that Java and the threat the cross-platform technology posed to his company's Windows operating systems "scares the hell out of me." Wired News Report8:09 a.m. 22.Oct.98.PDT (material from ‘98 trial)

  41. Design Goals • Portability • Internet-wide distribution: PC, Unix, Mac • Reliability • Avoid program crashes and error messages • Safety • Programmer may be malicious • Simplicity and familiarity • Appeal to average programmer; less complex than C++ • Efficiency • Important but secondary

  42. General design decisions • Simplicity • Almost everything is an object • All objects on heap, accessed through pointers • No functions, no multiple inheritance, no go to, no operator overloading, no automatic coercions • Portability and network transfer • Bytecode interpreter on many platforms • Reliability and Safety • Typed source and bytecode language • Run-time type and bounds checks • Garbage collection

  43. Java System • The Java programming language • Compiler and run-time system • Programmer compiles code • Compiled code transmitted on network • Receiver executes on interpreter (JVM) • Safety checks made before/during execution • Library, including graphics, security, etc. • Large library made it easier for projects to adopt Java • Interoperability • Provision for “native” methods

  44. Language Terminology • Class, object - as in other languages • Field – data member • Method - member function • Static members - class fields and methods • this - self • Package - set of classes in shared namespace • Native method - method written in another language, typically C

  45. Java Classes and Objects • Syntax similar to C++ • Object • has fields and methods • is allocated on heap, not run-time stack • accessible through reference (only ptr assignment) • garbage collected • Dynamic lookup • Similar in behavior to other languages • Static typing => more efficient than Smalltalk • Dynamic linking, interfaces => slower than C++

  46. Point Class class Point { private int x; protected void setX (int y) {x = y;} public int getX() {return x;} Point(int xval) {x = xval;} // constructor }; • Visibility similar to C++, but not exactly

  47. Object initialization • Java guarantees constructor call for each object • Memory allocated • Constructor called to initialize memory • Some interesting issues related to inheritance • We’ll discuss later … • Cannot do this (would be bad C++ style): • Obj* obj = (Obj*)malloc(sizeof(Obj)); use new instead … • Static fields of class initialized at class load time • Talk about class loading later

  48. Garbage Collection and Finalize • Objects are garbage collected • No explicit free • Avoid dangling pointers, resulting type errors • Problem • What if object has opened file or holds lock? • Solution • finalize method, called by the garbage collector • Before space is reclaimed, or when virtual machine exits • Space overflow is not really the right condition to trigger finalization when an object holds a lock...) • Important convention: call super.finalize

  49. package package class class field field method method Encapsulation and packages • Every field, method belongs to a class • Every class is part of some package • Can be unnamed default package • File declares which package code belongs to

  50. Visibility and access • Four visibility distinctions • public, private, protected, package • Method can refer to • private members of class it belongs to • non-private members of all classes in same package • protected members of superclasses (in diff package) • public members of classes in visible packages Visibility determined by files system, etc. (outside language) • Qualified names (or use import) • java.lang.String.substring() package class method