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Introduction to Agriculture

Introduction to Agriculture

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Introduction to Agriculture

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  1. Introduction to Agriculture Animal Diseases and Parasites

  2. Animal Diseases and Parasites • External and Internal Parasites • The immune system • Disease prevention programs • Types of disease -bacterial diseases -viral diseases -antibiotics -vaccines -history of vaccinations and Anti-biotics -Genetic diseases -Nutritional diseases • BSE “Mad Cow Disease”

  3. External & Internal Parasites

  4. Symptoms of Parasitic Infestation • Parasites to the stomach and intestines cause: • Anemia • Scouring • Depression • Death

  5. Description of Parasitic Infestation • Roundworms: • Found in the digestive system • Most important parasites from an economic standpoint • Mostly in stomach and intestines

  6. Stomach Worm • Several species of stomach worm • Twisted stomach worms and brown stomach worms are the most important. • Found in all classes of livestock • Most common in cattle, sheep and horses. • Penetrates the stomach lining • Causes severe damage

  7. Strongyles • Several species • Attack all species • Greater affect on young • Blood sucking parasites that attach to the lining of the intestines

  8. Ascarids • Parasites of cattle, sheep, horses and hogs • Affects young mostly • The larvae burrow into the wall of the intestines and migrate through the liver, heart, and finally the lungs

  9. Description of external parasites • Mites and mange • Mites are a live parasite • Mange is a live fungus

  10. Development and Types of Immunity

  11. The healthy body against a world of disease • The body has two “lines” of defense against disease organisms

  12. The first line of defense includes: • SKIN - which is covered by hair, feathers, etc., and is thick and able to sweat in some species (others must pant) • MUCOUS MEMBRANES - which are the sticky, protective coating that trap pathogens from further penetration (ex: in the nose and the tearing that washes pathogens out of the eyes)

  13. GUT - which is difficult for pathogens to pass through because of acids produced by digestive processes • CELL WALL - which is often mucus coated and may have cilia to protect the cell • COUGHING - which rids the body of disease organisms which may have been swallowed and the mucus they may be trapped in • FLUSHING EFFECT OF URINATION - which washes pathogens out

  14. The second line of defense includes: • WHITE BLOOD CELLS - which are produced by the body to help fight infection • LYMPHATIC SYSTEM - which filters pathogens and other undesirables out of the body’s lymphatic system • LIVER - which filters blood and detoxifies poisons • ANTIBODIES - which are substances produced by the body to fight off pathogens

  15. Once pathogens have breached the body’s line of defense, they generally multiply and attach, destroying body tissues. Disease activity results in changes in the tissues that are invaded.

  16. Typical signs of infections are: • Redness due to increased blood flow to the injured area • swelling • localized heat in the area of the injury • increased body temperature • pain resulting from excessive pressure on tissues due to swelling

  17. The speed at which a disease attacks and animal is termed: • ACUTE - relatively sudden appearance of symptoms (within 24 hours) • CHRONIC - that which develops more slowly, lingers, and will frequently reappear

  18. OVERWORK EXPOSUREto: cold heat rain snow sun humidity other animals parasites LONG SHIPMENTS WEANING INJURY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ACCESS TO STAGNANT WATER SPOILED FEEDS POISONOUS PLANTS The conditions could to make an animal become ill are:

  19. Diseases can be spread by: • DIRECT CONTACT- animals rubbing against each other (ringworm), sexual contact (venereal infections), or by mucus (respiratory diseases) • CONTACT WITH NON-LIVING OBJECTS- fence posts, trucks, feeders, needles, etc. • INFECTION FROM SOIL- tetanus, blackleg • INFECTION FROM FOOD OR WATER- influenza (viral infections)

  20. AIRBORNE INFECTION- coughing and sneezing of infected animals on each other • INFECTION FROM BLOOD SUCKERS- such as flies and mosquitoes carrying such diseases as encephalitis • INFECTIONS FROM ORGANISMS- normally in an animals body. However, they only become dangerous when the animal’s defenses are weakened by some health or stress-related problem

  21. Be alert for signs of disease and conditions which can cause stress and strain provide clean, disinfected quarters, free from draft provide adequate ventilation an plenty of sunlight Good management will do much to help animals resist disease:

  22. provide proper drainage of holding areas, barns, freestalls, etc. - to help maintain the dries area possible protect from excessive sun, wind, and rain, without over crowding practice rigid sanitation and manure removal procedures

  23. Provide a well balanced diet • get accurate diagnosis of health problems IMMEDIATELY so that treatment can be provided • avoid unnecessary stress and strain • buy disease free stock from healthy herds and flocks

  24. Isolate new animals for a period of time - be sure that they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock • follow a set vaccination program • be cautious of visitors from other operations as they may carry disease pathogens on shoes and clothing • dispose of dead animals immediately

  25. Animal Diseases Adapted from Georgia AgEd

  26. Disease • Broad definition – not being at ease or uncomfortable • Producers have a vested interest to keep their animals healthy

  27. Healthy Animals • Grow faster and produce more profit for their owners • Some diseases are mild, others may be severe and cause rapid death

  28. Sick animals • Usually display outward signs of illness • Animal may be droopy, go off feed and water, be restless, have a dull haircoat

  29. Infectious diseases • Caused by microorganisms that invade the animal’s body • Usually contagious diseases that the animal can pass to another animal

  30. Bacteria • Live in a wide range of conditions • Live on and in the bodies of all animals • More numerous than the cells of the body

  31. Bacteria • Many are beneficial • Those living in the stomachs of ruminant animals aid in digestion

  32. Bacteria • Useful in production of foods such as cheese and sauerkraut • Many can be harmful • Invade the cells of an animal’s body

  33. Parasitic bacteria • May harm the animal by feeding off the body cells or secreting a material known as a toxin

  34. Toxin • Substance that causes harm to an organism • A poison

  35. Harmful bacteria • When large numbers invade, the animal becomes ill • Type and form of the illness depends on the type of bacteria that invades the animal

  36. Cocci • Round spherical shaped bacteria • Some forms of pneumonia and strep are caused by this bacteria

  37. Bacillus • Rod shaped • Single, pairs, or arranged in chains • Cause some serious diseases in animals

  38. Bacillus • Anthrax • Tetanus • Blackleg • Intestinal coliform • Salmonella and tuberculosis

  39. Spirilla • Shaped like spirals or corkscrews • Very motile • Require moist atmosphere to live

  40. Spirilla • Live very well in the reproductive tracts of animals • Leptospirosis • Vibrosis and spirochetosis

  41. Most bacteria • Can be controlled by the use of antibiotics • Penicillin was one of the first • Produced from extracts of molds

  42. Penicillin • Many forms are now produced • Very effective against bacterial infection.

  43. Viruses • Very tiny particle of matter composed of a core of nucleic acid and a covering of protein that protects the virus

  44. Viruses • Have characteristics of both living and nonliving material • Are on the borderline between living and non living

  45. Viruses • Made up of some of the material found in cells but are not cells because they do not have a nucleus or other cell parts.

  46. Viruses • Do not grow and cannot reproduce outside a living cell • Once inside a living cell, virus reproduces using energy and materials in the invaded cell

  47. Viruses • Harm cells by causing them to burst during reproduction • And by using material that the cell needs to function properly

  48. Virus • Viral diseases cause the animal to be sick by preventing certain cells in the body from functioning properly

  49. Virus • More difficult to treat than bacterial diseases • Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections

  50. Viral diseases • Foot and mouth disease • Influenza • Hog cholera • Pseudorabies