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Internet Fundamentals Internet Services Workings Inside the Internet Organizations and the Internet Internet Originally a set of public WANs set of major hubs redundantly linked (packet switch) Different services on different WANs all text-based interfaces

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internet fundamentals

Internet Fundamentals

Internet Services

Workings Inside the Internet

Organizations and the Internet

  • Originally a set of public WANs
    • set of major hubs redundantly linked (packet switch)
  • Different services on different WANs
    • all text-based interfaces
    • e-mail (bitnet), newsgroups (usenet), info (gopher)
  • Operations
    • All used TCP/IP protocol
      • Each node has an IP address (
      • TCP is etiquette for transmission
  • Today - one public WAN = WWW
    • except for 50% of usenet
communication on the internet
Communication on the Internet
  • Email (
      • Everything to right is domain name
      • Domain name server (DNS) maps it to IP address
  • Types of discussions
      • Push/Pull, Synchronous/Asynch
      • Newsgroup - what is a thread?
      • Mailing lists (LISTSERV)
      • Online Chat
      • Messaging
      • Blog (weblog) - opinion or diary site
        • Others can respond
      • VoIP (voice over IP)
        • Need a gateway to translate analog to digital
          • Netmeeting (in windows), Skype.Net (free)
information sharing
Information Sharing
  • World Wide Web
    • Client/server system of protocols…
      • HTTP (hypertext transport protocol)
        • Controls transfer of webpages (store/forward)
        • HTTPs (secure HTTP)
      • HTML (hypertext markup language)
        • Commands used to create web page
    • For storing/retrieving information
      • Home page (entrance to website)
      • Hypertext interface -- links, tracking
      • Website vs. Portal
workings of a web page
Workings of a Web Page
  • Web pages sit on text based servers
  • So why are web pages so fancy?
    • formatting commands are embedded in text
      • <bold> IT 610 Info Tech Mgt </bold>
  • The embedded codes are HTML
    • HyperText Markup Language
      • they ‘markup’ the text
    • Filename must have htm or html
url s web site addresses
URL’s -- web site addresses
  • Universal Remote Locator
  • Ex:
  • Machine Name
  • Location on machine (folders)
    • /~mann
    • /pubs
  • File that has HTML
    • help.htm
  • Domain Name Server (DNS)
    • Translates URL to IP address (
other web services
Other Web Services
  • Telnet
    • Use Internet to control host remotely
      • Login, send commands
  • Ftp (file transfer protocol)
    • Put files on host (upload)
    • Get files from host (download)
    • Need ftp software
  • Web Drive middleware
    • Acts like server is another hard drive
      • Interface between windows explorer and…
        • Ex: webdav, web folders
connecting to the internet
Connecting to the Internet
  • What is an ISP?
    • Basic service vs. online service
  • What are your options at home?
  • How get to internet at work?
  • How does organization connect?
    • Internet gateway from a location
      • access only, no website
internet and organizations
Internet and Organizations
  • Gen 4 in Networking History
    • In addition to being connected to the web firms have…
      • Extranets
        • Public websites
        • Private websites on Public Internet
      • Intranets
        • In-house websites
    • Virtual Private Net (VPN)
      • creates dedicated net on Internet
intranets extranets vs internet
Intranets, Extranets vs Internet
  • All of them
    • Are TCP/IP based
    • Use HTTP and HTML
    • Have hyperlinking and data entry forms
    • Use web servers
    • Give access to multimedia
    • Are User Friendly
  • Intranet, is
    • Network is within the organization
    • Intranet has access to Internet but not vice versa
  • Extranet is created for outsiders
    • ex: customers, the public, partners
    • separate web server from intranet, firm’s backbone
  • People connect to it from Internet
  • Connections to firm’s systems
    • View web pages
    • Download info from firm’s web server
    • Interact with firm’s systems
      • fill in form, data goes to web server
      • web server accesses db servers, legacy systems
firm creates a website
Firm Creates a Website
  • Registers a domain name
  • Hires an Internet Hosting Site
  • Creates web pages
    • Home page with links to other pages
  • Uses FTP to upload pages to host site
    • Using their web servers
  • Now users can get to site!
  • But site is only informational
what is e commerce
What is e-commerce?
  • Doing business on the Internet
    • What is meant by business?
      • Activities you can do on firm’s website
  • Customer life cycle
    • gather info
    • acquire product
      • Including mass customization
    • manage its use
    • retire the product
b2c business to customer
B2C - business to customer
  • Components
    • public internet + extranet architecture + third parties (electronic mall, EFT)
    • or electronic hub
  • Steps
    • create an attractive marketplace
    • interact with consumers
      • use site to improve customer relations
    • use information to improve operations
c2c or p2p
C2C or P2P
  • C2C = customer to customer
    • Electronic Broker
      • connects customers together
        • contact database
        • auctions
  • P2P = person to person
    • When you want to sell something to someone you know
b2b business to business
B2B - Business to Business
  • What if can’t get other firms to use your EDI?
    • Most firms can only get 10% to 20%
      • Ex: Cessna has 4k suppliers, only 71 signed up
    • Two other options -- e-mail EDI, web EDI
  • E-mail EDI
    • PC software has data entry form
      • collects transaction info and validates it
    • It then sends a formatted e-mail message
  • Web-EDI
    • Extranet data entry processed by app server
adv of b2b web based edi
Adv of B2B (Web Based EDI)
  • Benefits
    • Cheap
      • already have ISP and browser
      • already know how to use
      • don’t need translator
    • Easy
      • don’t need software or even IS dept
      • can outsource it all to service provider
    • Fast -- set up new firm in minutes
  • Disadvantages
    • Less efficient (esp. for high volume)
      • unless data also goes to their system, redundant data entry
    • Harder to lock in suppliers
e commerce software
E-Commerce Software
  • Web Hosting Service
  • Web Content Management Tools
    • Including dynamic webpages
  • Web Performance Monitoring Tools
  • Personalization
    • Allow customer to choose interface
  • Cust Tracking
    • clickstream tracking and cookies
    • collaborative filtering
      • predict what want to see next
  • Search Tools on website
  • 3rd party search engines
  • User interaction on website
payments on the web frequent
Payments on the web (frequent)
  • Prepaid Accounts
    • phone 3rd party, set up account
      • Create prepaid debit account or
      • Access to limited $ - credit card or bank account
    • give ID to vendor
      • vendor emails 3rd party who sends you email
    • or use digital signature + PIN #
  • Accumulated balance
    • Create account & make several purchases
      • Vendor keeps a tab, periodically bills you
        • Or puts it on your credit card
  • Electronic Billing Support Systems
    • Coordinate your routine bills, pay online
one time payments
One time payments
  • Like certified funds w/ no float time
    • buy online - 3rd party that works w/ bank
    • bank gives you online $ and password
    • you give password to merchant to use w/ bank
    • bank gets $ from bank thru tradl EFT
    • merchant confirms payment
  • 3rd party P2P site (PayPal)
    • Buyer uses credit card to make account & payment
    • Seller gives bank/credit info to get payment
payments on web other types
Payments on web (other types)
  • Add-ons to browser
    • sends credit info
      • transmission decrypted by bank
      • bank notifies merchant of approval
    • or client software + cash service
      • Can pay people w/ same system
  • Smart card + card reader
  • Take credit/checking to web
    • Digital Credit (credit co does authorization
      • Handles electronic funds transfer
    • Digital Checking (cheaper)
      • Works w/ your checking account
    • Online banking
m commerce
  • Architecture = wireless web
    • microbrowser + WML
  • Internet Appliances
    • Pagers, Cell/mobile phone
    • Handhelds
  • Wireless websites
    • Wireless/mobile portals
    • Voice portals
  • Services
    • Information based (lookup)
    • Transaction based (buy)
    • Personalized (who, where you are)
m commerce applications
M-Commerce Applications
  • Email/phone
  • Web info and ticket buying
    • Transportation
    • Entertainment
  • Location info
    • nearest….
  • Access to Media (newspapers)
  • Financial services
    • Bill pay, stock trade (also alerts)
  • Wireless advertising
  • M-payments (similar to web versions)
e commerce and supply chain
E-Commerce and Supply Chain
  • Intermediation
    • When one firm acts as an intermediary in the supply chain
  • Disintermediation
    • When E-Commerce allows a firm to remove intermediary from supply chain
  • Reintermediation
    • When intermediary is shifted to a new source
e commerce models
E-Commerce Models
  • Virtual Storefront – sell products
  • Information Broker
    • Provides/sells info on firms, revenue from firms
  • Transaction Broker
    • Process online sales for other firms (fee based)
  • Online Marketplace
    • Where buyers and sellers meet, auctions
  • Content Provider (syndicator)
    • Packages news, music… over the web
  • Online Service Provider
    • Access to internet + portal to other services
    • May sell member info
  • Virtual Community
    • Hosts chats, bulletin boards, etc.
  • Pure-play vs. Clicks-and-Mortar
web based infrastructure
Web-based Infrastructure
  • Intranet Servers
    • file server
      • gives access to shared files (ex: manuals)
    • database servers
      • records, web page components
    • web server
      • gives access to hypermedia pages w/ links
    • application servers
      • provide access to shared software or
      • display web front-end (user interface)
      • connect w/ legacy systems, db servers or
    • groupware server
      • discussion + email + calendar, etc.
    • directory server
      • controls access to other servers
    • enterprise server or EAI servers
      • connect multiple hosts, integrate CRM/ERP
e commerce infrastructure
E-Commerce Infrastructure
  • Extranet
    • Give access to public website (informational)
    • Give access to employee or partner intranet
      • Process transactions, communicate with customer
        • using application, database, email servers
      • Handle large amount of traffic
        • load balancers
  • Firewalls - Protect internal sites
    • authentication server
      • handles login
    • certificate server
      • manages encryption
    • proxy server -
      • pretends to be real web server, prevents hacking
      • replicates web content of interest to one group
web infrastructure issues
Web Infrastructure Issues
  • When create extranet
    • Security is primary issue
  • Issues with any website/intranet
    • As hits on website grow…
    • Or as interactiveness grows….
    • Issues
      • Load Balancing
      • Scalability
      • Modularity
e commerce infrastructure30

Thin Client

E-Commerce Infrastructure

Web Server

ApplicationServer (ERP)

Load Balancer

Web Server



Load Balancer

ApplicationServer (CRM)

Web Server

Legacy Host

Load Balancer

File Server


Load Balancer

StorageArea Net

keys to building a simple web site

Keys to Building A Simple Web Site

Doris Thompson

Abridged presentation given in IT 610

html tags
HTML “tags”
  • As mentioned earlier in class, HTML uses a set of commands called “tags”.
  • Each tag is encased within < and />…
  • It is a good idea to use capital letters within < and > for your commands. It makes it easier to read the code.
  • For example:

This is <BOLD> bold </BOLD> text

Would display the following:

This is bold text

html tags cont
HTML “tags” Cont.
  • There are many special tags to HTML
  • <HTML> </HTML> signals the beginning and the end of an HTML document. Surprised?
  • <B> <I> <T> represent Bold, Italic, and Typewriter.
  • <HR>, Horizontal Reference, gives you a line like this:
html tags a few more
HTML “tags” – A Few More
  • <BR> breaks the text and begins it on the next line
    • (like hitting “Enter” on a keyboard)
  • <P> stands for Paragraph and does the same exact thing as <BR>,
    • but it skips a line before starting the text again
  • <H1> through <H8> are heading commands.
    • H1 is the largest, H8 the smallest.
html text justification
HTML Text Justification
  • Text in HTML is automatically left-justified.
  • To center text, use the <CENTER> command.
  • Right-justification can be achieved by using <P ALIGN=“right”>.
    • When an attribute is added to a single tag such as <P>,
    • then you need to end the command with </P>.
html attributes
HTML “Attributes”
  • Some commands have attributes (a command within a command).
  • <FONT SIZE=“+6”> is the largest font.

“-6” is the smallest.

    • changes the color of the letters to lime green
  • End either or both at the same time by just using </font>.
html tags37
HTML “tags”
  • Multiple commands can be used at the same time but you must be careful
    • work inside out
  • Here is a correct example




actual text




  • If you make a mistake a formatting might go on longer than you intended
html tags38
HTML “tags”
  • You can view the source code for any web site by going to “View”, then “Source Code” at the top of your browser’s tool bar.
  • Just like with programs, web page builders often reuse any interesting code they find, such as graphics, text enhancements, and fancy backgrounds.
  • If you use Word, you don’t have to play with tags, just save as HTML
final steps
Final Steps
  • With PC’s, use SAVE AS, then html as the extension.
  • You will need space on an internet server so that people can get to it.
  • You upload the webpage to the server with software that uses the File Transfer Protocol
    • WSFTP.EXE is one option
    • You can create folders on the website to help keep it organized
  • Once you upload the webpage to the server, user your browser to view it
links in html
Links in HTML
  • HTML is called a Hyper Language because of it’s ability to let the user jump from page to page in a non-linear fashion.
  • To create a link in Word, select the text, and then use the Insert Hyperlink button (Globe + link of chain)
  • To edit link, right click, then click on Hyperlink
the hyperlink command
The Hyperlink command
  • The following command would make a link to the website where I found a lot of information for this project.

<A HREF=“”> Click Here For HTML Goodies </A>

  • Offsite links -- go to a different server
  • Internal links -- go to a different page on the same server
    • you don’t need to include the server
    • <A HREF=“tutors/sitelinks.html”>Click Here For HTML Goodies</A>
placing images on a website
Placing Images on a Website
  • If the picture is in the same folder as the webpage, then you just need this command:

<IMG SRC="sally.gif">

  • If the picture is in a different folder or a different server, then you need to include that information in the link