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Internet Fundamentals

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  1. Internet Fundamentals Internet Services Workings Inside the Internet Organizations and the Internet

  2. Internet • Originally a set of public WANs • set of major hubs redundantly linked (packet switch) • Different services on different WANs • all text-based interfaces • e-mail (bitnet), newsgroups (usenet), info (gopher) • Operations • All used TCP/IP protocol • Each node has an IP address ( • TCP is etiquette for transmission • Today - one public WAN = WWW • except for 50% of usenet

  3. Communication on the Internet • Email ( • Everything to right is domain name • Domain name server (DNS) maps it to IP address • Types of discussions • Push/Pull, Synchronous/Asynch • Newsgroup - what is a thread? • Mailing lists (LISTSERV) • Online Chat • Messaging • Blog (weblog) - opinion or diary site • Others can respond • VoIP (voice over IP) • Need a gateway to translate analog to digital • Netmeeting (in windows), Skype.Net (free)

  4. Information Sharing • World Wide Web • Client/server system of protocols… • HTTP (hypertext transport protocol) • Controls transfer of webpages (store/forward) • HTTPs (secure HTTP) • HTML (hypertext markup language) • Commands used to create web page • For storing/retrieving information • Home page (entrance to website) • Hypertext interface -- links, tracking • Website vs. Portal

  5. Workings of a Web Page • Web pages sit on text based servers • So why are web pages so fancy? • formatting commands are embedded in text • <bold> IT 610 Info Tech Mgt </bold> • The embedded codes are HTML • HyperText Markup Language • they ‘markup’ the text • Filename must have htm or html

  6. URL’s -- web site addresses • Universal Remote Locator • Ex: • Machine Name • • Location on machine (folders) • /~mann • /pubs • File that has HTML • help.htm • Domain Name Server (DNS) • Translates URL to IP address (

  7. Other Web Services • Telnet • Use Internet to control host remotely • Login, send commands • Ftp (file transfer protocol) • Put files on host (upload) • Get files from host (download) • Need ftp software • Web Drive middleware • Acts like server is another hard drive • Interface between windows explorer and… • Ex: webdav, web folders

  8. Connecting to the Internet • What is an ISP? • Basic service vs. online service • What are your options at home? • How get to internet at work? • How does organization connect? • Internet gateway from a location • access only, no website

  9. Internet and Organizations • Gen 4 in Networking History • In addition to being connected to the web firms have… • Extranets • Public websites • Private websites on Public Internet • Intranets • In-house websites • Virtual Private Net (VPN) • creates dedicated net on Internet

  10. Intranets, Extranets vs Internet • All of them • Are TCP/IP based • Use HTTP and HTML • Have hyperlinking and data entry forms • Use web servers • Give access to multimedia • Are User Friendly • Intranet, is • Network is within the organization • Intranet has access to Internet but not vice versa

  11. Extranet • Extranet is created for outsiders • ex: customers, the public, partners • separate web server from intranet, firm’s backbone • People connect to it from Internet • Connections to firm’s systems • View web pages • Download info from firm’s web server • Interact with firm’s systems • fill in form, data goes to web server • web server accesses db servers, legacy systems

  12. Firm Creates a Website • Registers a domain name • Hires an Internet Hosting Site • Creates web pages • Home page with links to other pages • Uses FTP to upload pages to host site • Using their web servers • Now users can get to site! • But site is only informational

  13. E-Commerce Fundamentals

  14. What is e-commerce? • Doing business on the Internet • What is meant by business? • Activities you can do on firm’s website • Customer life cycle • gather info • acquire product • Including mass customization • manage its use • retire the product

  15. B2C - business to customer • Components • public internet + extranet architecture + third parties (electronic mall, EFT) • or electronic hub • Steps • create an attractive marketplace • interact with consumers • use site to improve customer relations • use information to improve operations

  16. C2C or P2P • C2C = customer to customer • Electronic Broker • connects customers together • contact database • auctions • P2P = person to person • When you want to sell something to someone you know

  17. B2B - Business to Business • What if can’t get other firms to use your EDI? • Most firms can only get 10% to 20% • Ex: Cessna has 4k suppliers, only 71 signed up • Two other options -- e-mail EDI, web EDI • E-mail EDI • PC software has data entry form • collects transaction info and validates it • It then sends a formatted e-mail message • Web-EDI • Extranet data entry processed by app server

  18. Adv of B2B (Web Based EDI) • Benefits • Cheap • already have ISP and browser • already know how to use • don’t need translator • Easy • don’t need software or even IS dept • can outsource it all to service provider • Fast -- set up new firm in minutes • Disadvantages • Less efficient (esp. for high volume) • unless data also goes to their system, redundant data entry • Harder to lock in suppliers

  19. E-Commerce Software • Web Hosting Service • Web Content Management Tools • Including dynamic webpages • Web Performance Monitoring Tools • Personalization • Allow customer to choose interface • Cust Tracking • clickstream tracking and cookies • collaborative filtering • predict what want to see next • Search Tools on website • 3rd party search engines • User interaction on website

  20. Payments on the web (frequent) • Prepaid Accounts • phone 3rd party, set up account • Create prepaid debit account or • Access to limited $ - credit card or bank account • give ID to vendor • vendor emails 3rd party who sends you email • or use digital signature + PIN # • Accumulated balance • Create account & make several purchases • Vendor keeps a tab, periodically bills you • Or puts it on your credit card • Electronic Billing Support Systems • Coordinate your routine bills, pay online

  21. One time payments • Like certified funds w/ no float time • buy online - 3rd party that works w/ bank • bank gives you online $ and password • you give password to merchant to use w/ bank • bank gets $ from bank thru tradl EFT • merchant confirms payment • 3rd party P2P site (PayPal) • Buyer uses credit card to make account & payment • Seller gives bank/credit info to get payment

  22. Payments on web (other types) • Add-ons to browser • sends credit info • transmission decrypted by bank • bank notifies merchant of approval • or client software + cash service • Can pay people w/ same system • Smart card + card reader • Take credit/checking to web • Digital Credit (credit co does authorization • Handles electronic funds transfer • Digital Checking (cheaper) • Works w/ your checking account • Online banking

  23. M-Commerce • Architecture = wireless web • microbrowser + WML • Internet Appliances • Pagers, Cell/mobile phone • Handhelds • Wireless websites • Wireless/mobile portals • Voice portals • Services • Information based (lookup) • Transaction based (buy) • Personalized (who, where you are)

  24. M-Commerce Applications • Email/phone • Web info and ticket buying • Transportation • Entertainment • Location info • nearest…. • Access to Media (newspapers) • Financial services • Bill pay, stock trade (also alerts) • Wireless advertising • M-payments (similar to web versions)

  25. E-Commerce and Supply Chain • Intermediation • When one firm acts as an intermediary in the supply chain • Disintermediation • When E-Commerce allows a firm to remove intermediary from supply chain • Reintermediation • When intermediary is shifted to a new source

  26. E-Commerce Models • Virtual Storefront – sell products • Information Broker • Provides/sells info on firms, revenue from firms • Transaction Broker • Process online sales for other firms (fee based) • Online Marketplace • Where buyers and sellers meet, auctions • Content Provider (syndicator) • Packages news, music… over the web • Online Service Provider • Access to internet + portal to other services • May sell member info • Virtual Community • Hosts chats, bulletin boards, etc. • Pure-play vs. Clicks-and-Mortar

  27. Web-based Infrastructure • Intranet Servers • file server • gives access to shared files (ex: manuals) • database servers • records, web page components • web server • gives access to hypermedia pages w/ links • application servers • provide access to shared software or • display web front-end (user interface) • connect w/ legacy systems, db servers or • groupware server • discussion + email + calendar, etc. • directory server • controls access to other servers • enterprise server or EAI servers • connect multiple hosts, integrate CRM/ERP

  28. E-Commerce Infrastructure • Extranet • Give access to public website (informational) • Give access to employee or partner intranet • Process transactions, communicate with customer • using application, database, email servers • Handle large amount of traffic • load balancers • Firewalls - Protect internal sites • authentication server • handles login • certificate server • manages encryption • proxy server - • pretends to be real web server, prevents hacking • replicates web content of interest to one group

  29. Web Infrastructure Issues • When create extranet • Security is primary issue • Issues with any website/intranet • As hits on website grow… • Or as interactiveness grows…. • Issues • Load Balancing • Scalability • Modularity

  30. Thin Client E-Commerce Infrastructure Web Server ApplicationServer (ERP) Load Balancer Web Server Firewalls PC Load Balancer ApplicationServer (CRM) Web Server Legacy Host Load Balancer File Server DatabaseServer Load Balancer StorageArea Net

  31. Keys to Building A Simple Web Site Doris Thompson Abridged presentation given in IT 610

  32. HTML “tags” • As mentioned earlier in class, HTML uses a set of commands called “tags”. • Each tag is encased within < and />… • It is a good idea to use capital letters within < and > for your commands. It makes it easier to read the code. • For example: This is <BOLD> bold </BOLD> text Would display the following: This is bold text

  33. HTML “tags” Cont. • There are many special tags to HTML • <HTML> </HTML> signals the beginning and the end of an HTML document. Surprised? • <B> <I> <T> represent Bold, Italic, and Typewriter. • <HR>, Horizontal Reference, gives you a line like this:

  34. HTML “tags” – A Few More • <BR> breaks the text and begins it on the next line • (like hitting “Enter” on a keyboard) • <P> stands for Paragraph and does the same exact thing as <BR>, • but it skips a line before starting the text again • <H1> through <H8> are heading commands. • H1 is the largest, H8 the smallest.

  35. HTML Text Justification • Text in HTML is automatically left-justified. • To center text, use the <CENTER> command. • Right-justification can be achieved by using <P ALIGN=“right”>. • When an attribute is added to a single tag such as <P>, • then you need to end the command with </P>.

  36. HTML “Attributes” • Some commands have attributes (a command within a command). • <FONT SIZE=“+6”> is the largest font. “-6” is the smallest. • <FONT COLOR=“LIME”> • changes the color of the letters to lime green • End either or both at the same time by just using </font>.

  37. HTML “tags” • Multiple commands can be used at the same time but you must be careful • work inside out • Here is a correct example <BIG> <Center> <I> actual text </I> </Center> </BIG> • If you make a mistake a formatting might go on longer than you intended

  38. HTML “tags” • You can view the source code for any web site by going to “View”, then “Source Code” at the top of your browser’s tool bar. • Just like with programs, web page builders often reuse any interesting code they find, such as graphics, text enhancements, and fancy backgrounds. • If you use Word, you don’t have to play with tags, just save as HTML

  39. Final Steps • With PC’s, use SAVE AS, then html as the extension. • You will need space on an internet server so that people can get to it. • You upload the webpage to the server with software that uses the File Transfer Protocol • WSFTP.EXE is one option • You can create folders on the website to help keep it organized • Once you upload the webpage to the server, user your browser to view it

  40. Links in HTML • HTML is called a Hyper Language because of it’s ability to let the user jump from page to page in a non-linear fashion. • To create a link in Word, select the text, and then use the Insert Hyperlink button (Globe + link of chain) • To edit link, right click, then click on Hyperlink

  41. The Hyperlink command • The following command would make a link to the website where I found a lot of information for this project. <A HREF=“”> Click Here For HTML Goodies </A> • Offsite links -- go to a different server • Internal links -- go to a different page on the same server • you don’t need to include the server • <A HREF=“tutors/sitelinks.html”>Click Here For HTML Goodies</A>

  42. Placing Images on a Website • If the picture is in the same folder as the webpage, then you just need this command: <IMG SRC="sally.gif"> • If the picture is in a different folder or a different server, then you need to include that information in the link