history of psychology l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
History of Psychology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
History of Psychology

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

History of Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 345 Views
  • Uploaded on

History of Psychology. Chapter 12 :Gestalt Psychology. 1. The Whole is Different From the Sum of Its Parts. A. The Gestalt revolution 1. in Germany 2. a protest against Wundtian psychology B. Criticisms of Wundt’s approach 1. against elementism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'History of Psychology' - jacob


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
history of psychology

History of Psychology

Chapter 12 :Gestalt Psychology

1 the whole is different from the sum of its parts
1. The Whole is Different From the Sum of Its Parts
  • A. The Gestalt revolution
    • 1. in Germany
    • 2. a protest against Wundtian psychology
  • B. Criticisms of Wundt’s approach
    • 1. against elementism
    • 2. against the notion that perception of objects is a summation of elements
the whole is different from the sum of its parts
The Whole is Different From the Sum of Its Parts

3. However, the whole is different from the sum of its parts

  • C. Unlike behaviorism, Gestalt accepts the value of consciousness
ii antecedent influences on gestalt psychology
A. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

The elements are organized meaningfully not through the mechanical process of association

B. Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

Psychology should study the act of experiencing.

He considered Wundt’s introspection is artificial

II. Antecedent Influences onGestalt Psychology
antecedent influences on gestalt psychology
C. Ernst Mach (1838-1917)

1. a physicist

2. discussed spatial and temporal patterns

a. considered them to be sensations

b. independent of their elements

Antecedent Influences onGestalt Psychology
antecedent influences on gestalt psychology6
D. von Ehrenfels (1859-1932)

1. Qualities of experience can not be explained as combination of elementary sensations

2. Perceptions based on something greater than a merging of individual sensations

3. Wertheimer considered von Ehrenfels' work the crucial antecedent

Antecedent Influences onGestalt Psychology
antecedent influences on gestalt psychology7
E. William James

1. regarded elements of consciousness as artificial abstractions

F. Phenomenology

1.an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to elements

2. involves naïve experience

Antecedent Influences onGestalt Psychology
antecedent influences on gestalt psychology8
Antecedent Influences onGestalt Psychology
  • G. G. E. Müller’s lab at U. of Göttingen
    • 1. 1909-1915: a group of phenomenological psychologists worked at U. of Göttingen.
    • 2. anticipated to form the Gestalt school
iii the changing zeitgeist in physics
III. The Changing Zeitgeist in Physics
  • A. Physicists beginning to think in terms of fields and organic wholes
  • B. Gestalt psychology
    • 1. Köhler: background in physics and studies with Max Planck
    • 2. an application of field physics to psychology
iv max wertheimer 1880 1943
A. Background

1. studied Law U. of Prague, then philosophy

2. attended lectures by von Ehrenfels

3. studied philosophy & psychology U. of Berlin

4. 1904: Ph.D. U. of Würzburg with Külpe

IV. Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
max wertheimer 1880 1943
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
  • B. 1921: co-founded the journal Psychological Research(official publications of the Gestalt psychology school of thoughts)
  • C. 1933: fled Germany to the New School of Social Research in New York
  • D. Maslow’s concept of self-actualization based on Wertheimer
v kurt koffka 1886 1941
A. Background

1. interest in science and philosophy

2. 1909: Ph.D. from U. of Berlin with Stumpf

3. 1910: began association with Wertheimer and Köhler

V. Kurt Koffka (1886-1941)

Kurt Koffka (left)

Wolfgang Kohler (right)

kurt koffka 1886 1941
Kurt Koffka (1886-1941)
  • B. 1921: The Growth of the Mind
  • C. 1922: "Perception: An Introduction to Gestalt-Theorie"
    • 1. described the basic concepts and results of considerable research
    • 2. term "perception" misunderstood as the most narrow focus on a single process
kurt koffka 1886 194114
Kurt Koffka (1886-1941)
    • 3. has a broad concern
      • a. problems of thinking and learning
      • b. ultimately: all aspects of conscious experience
  • D. 1927: to Smith College
  • E. 1935: Principles of Gestalt Psychology
vi wolfgang k hler 1887 1967
A. Background

1. trained in physics with Max Planck

2. convinced that

a. Gestalten occur in psychology as in physics

b. psychology must become allied with physics

3. 1909: Ph.D. from U. of Berlin with Stumpf

VI. Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967)

Kurt Koffka (left)

Wolfgang Kohler (right)

wolfgang k hler 1887 1967
Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967)
  • B. Career
    • 1. 1917: The Mentality of Apes
      • Study the behavior of chimpanzees
    • 2. 1922: succeeded Stumpf as professor of psychology at Berlin
    • 3. 1929: Gestalt Psychology
wolfgang k hler 1887 196717
Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967)
  • 4. 1935: left Germany to US and taught at Swarthmore College in Penn state
  • 5. was the spokesman for Gestalt movement
vii the nature of the gestalt revolution
VII.The Nature of the Gestalt Revolution
  • A. In Germany: heretical and a rebellion directly against Wundt
  • B. Research
    • 1. perceptual constancies
      • Definition: A quality of wholeness or completeness in perceptual experience that does not vary even when the sensory elements changes.
vii the nature of the gestalt revolution19
VII.The Nature of the Gestalt Revolution
  • 2. there exists a wholeness not found in any of the parts
  • 3. the character of the actual perception differs from the character of the sensory stimulation
  • 4. attempts at analysisdestroy the perception
the nature of the gestalt revolution
The Nature of the Gestalt Revolution
  • C. Köhler: Two meanings of "Gestalt"
    • 1. shape or form as a property of objects
    • 2. a whole or concrete entity that has as one attributes a specific shape or form
    • 3. The term is not restricted to visual or sensory fields
viii gestalt principles of perceptual organization
VIII.Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization
  • A. principles
  • 1. Proximity: a
  • 2. Continuity: a
  • 3. Similarity: b
  • 4. Closure: c
  • 5. Simplicity: c
  • 6. figure/ground: d

B. Organizing principles don’t depend on higher mental processes or past experiences

ix gestalt studies of learning insight and the mentality of apes
IX. Gestalt Studies of Learning: Insight and the Mentality of Apes
  • A. Intelligence of chimpanzees---- demonstrated in ability to solve problems
ix gestalt studies of learning insight and the mentality of apes23
IX. Gestalt Studies of Learning: Insight and the Mentality of Apes
  • B. Köhler’s interpretation of results
    • 1. in terms of perceive the situation as a whole
    • 2. in terms of understanding relationships among the various stimuli
    • 3. Called “insight”
      • Immediate apprehension or understanding of relationships
gestalt studies of learning insight and the mentality of apes
Gestalt Studies of Learning: Insight and the Mentality of Apes
  • C. Solutions require
    • 1. restructuring of the perceptual field
    • 2. perception of a new relationship between the stimuli
x the spread of gestalt psychology
X. The Spread of Gestalt Psychology
  • A. 1920s
    • 1. a coherent and dominant school in Germany
    • 2. American students such as Tolman and Allport
    • 3. Koffka and Köhler: many lectures in the U.S.
  • B. 1933 Nazi government: shift of Gestalt psychology to U.S.
the spread of gestalt psychology
The Spread of Gestalt Psychology
  • C. Slow acceptance in the U.S.
    • 1. behaviorism was at its peak
    • 2. a language barrier
    • 3. belief that Gestalt psychology dealt solely withperception
    • 4. Wertheimer, Köhler, and Koffka at small colleges without graduate programs
    • 5. Gestalt focus of protest (Wundt) no longer of concern in U.S.
xi field theory kurt lewin 1890 1947
A. Lewin’s life

1. studied mathematics and physics at German universities

2. 1914: Ph.D. at U. of Berlin with Stumpf

XI. Field Theory: Kurt Lewin(1890-1947)
kurt lewin 1890 1947
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
  • B. Field theory
    • 1. Definition: using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one’s field of social influence
    • 2. the trend in late 19th-century science
    • 3. extended beyond the Gestalt framework
kurt lewin 1890 194729
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
  • C. The life space
    • the psychological field of the individual
      • a. encompasses all past, present, and future events that may affect one
      • b. each event may determine behavior in a given situation
      • c. degree of development is a function of amount and type of experience accumulated
kurt lewin 1890 194730
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
  • D. Motivation
    • 1. equilibrium
      • a. State of balance between the person and the environment
      • b. Any disturbance of this equilibrium produces tension
      • c. It leads to some action to relieve the tension and restore the balance
      • d. thus, motivation is a consequence of dis-equilibrium
kurt lewin 1890 194731
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
  • 2. the Zeigarnik effect
    • The tendency to recall uncompleted tasks more easily than completed tasks
kurt lewin 1890 194732
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
  • E. Social psychology
    • 1. group dynamics
      • The outstanding feature of Lewin’s social psychology is group dynamic
    • 2. authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership styles among boys
      • Authoritarian---boys were more aggressive
      • Democratic---boys were more friendly
      • Spurred the growth of social psychology
kurt lewin 1890 194733
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
  • 3. emphasis on social action research
    • Racial problems, equal employment opportunities, or prevention of prejudice in childhood
  • 4. sensitivity training
    • Was forerunners of the encounter groups popular in the 1960s and 1970s.
xii criticisms of gestalt psychology
XII. Criticisms of Gestalt Psychology
  • 1. Gestalt position is vague
  • 2. basic concepts and termsnot defined with sufficient rigor
  • 3. too preoccupied with theory at the expense of research and empirical support
      • a. lacks adequate controls
criticisms of gestalt psychology
Criticisms of Gestalt Psychology
  • 4. the Gestalt experimental work is inferior to the behaviorist
  • 5. insight learning: not replicable
  • 6. poorly defined physiological assumptions
xiii contributions of gestalt psychology
XIII. Contributions of Gestalt Psychology
  • A. Retained its separate identity, not absorbed by the mainstream
  • B. Centered on phenomenology
  • C. influence the Americans humanistic psychology movement and contemporary cognitive psychology