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Governance and School Leadership in the Flemish System Diversity and Partnerships Gaby Hostens OECD-workshop Brussels, 1 PowerPoint Presentation
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Governance and School Leadership in the Flemish System Diversity and Partnerships Gaby Hostens OECD-workshop Brussels, 1-2 February 2007. Political context Constitutional context Educational context Governance in education Attractive, Developing and Retaining Effective School Leaders

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Governance and School Leadership in the Flemish System

Diversity and Partnerships

Gaby Hostens

OECD-workshop

Brussels, 1-2 February 2007

slide2
Political context
  • Constitutional context
  • Educational context
  • Governance in education
  • Attractive, Developing and Retaining Effective School Leaders
  • Performances of Flemish schools in international surveys (PISA, TIMSS)
  • Major challenges for education policies
slide3
I. Political context

1. Belgium : a federal country

2. 3 Communities :

- Flemish : ± 6 mio = Dutch-speaking

- French : ± 4 mio

- German : 0,1 mio

slide4
3. Competencies in education

Systems have grown apart

- Governance : the role of ministers of education

- Funding mechanisms

- Curricula

- Quality assurance mechanisms

- Teacher salaries

Performances of the systems

slide6
II. Constitutional context

Has impact on governance

1. Freedom of education

a. Freedom for providers = freedom to start a school

Great diversity of providers

* Private organisations

* Municipalities, provinces

* State → Community

b. Freedom to choose a school = free choice for parents

Schools compete for students ! Quasi-market

Informed choice ? Voice ?

Equity ?

slide7
c. How to implement freedom of education ?

- Providers :

* Financial support

* Pedagogical autonomy * Obligation to enroll students

Great responsibilities

- Parents, students

* No fees during compulsory education

* The right to enroll

* Geographical accessibility

slide8
d. A great diversity of providers. Diversity of

- Pedagogical projects

- Denominational, non-denominational, official schools

- Size of school boards

Impact on governance

Impact on school leadership

slide9
2. The right to education

a. Entitlement to the school of your choice b. Entitlement to high quality education

= a challenging curriculum

c. The right to enroll

3. Equal treatment of students, teachers, parents, schools

But : objective differences are allowed

slide10
Educational context

Defining characteristics/features of the system

1. A large diversity of relatively by autonomous providers

2. Autonomous providers have networked

have been networked

- Catholic schools

- State, community schools

- Municipal schools

- Provincial schools

slide11
3. National core curriculum = a minimum

4. A compulsory ‘schooling’ period of 12 years

5. No national exams (A-levels, Bac, etc.)

No standardised tests at key stages

6. Schools that meet legal criteria issue valid diplomas

slide12
7. Input funding based on enrolment figures

= No output funding based on performances

Funding mechanism : sensitive to student enrolment

8. Accountability mechanisms

- Inspectorate

- Free choice?

slide13
Governance in education

Introduction :

- Many layers of government

- Involvement of a great many stakeholders

- Heavily institutionalised

1. Different layers

a. Organising bodies = school boards

→ Bear the full responsibility for operation of their schools

slide14
- Employers

- Pedagogical autonomy

- Quality outcomes : performances

- Financial management

- Infrastructure

slide15
But organising bodies, school boards

- For community schools = school group

- For municipality schools = municipal council - For private schools

* Religious congregations

* Diocese

* Local organisations

* Etc.

School boards = Schulträger

- Critical in education in Flanders

- Central role in organisation of schooling

slide16
b. Communities of schools in primary education

and

secondary education

- Regional networks of schools

- A limited number of competencies

- Diversity in communities of schools, differences in :

* Geographical spread

* Size : number of schools, number of students

* Impact on individual schools

- Policy objectives :

* Achieve a more rational school landscape

* More rational use of resources

* Better career guidance for students

slide17
c. National networks of schools = umbrella

organisations

- Membership : voluntary vs compulsory

- Roles :

* Representation

* Capacity building

* Curriculum development

* Professional support

→ Important actors at macro level

slide18
2. Involvement of stakeholders

a. Teaching unions. Reflecting diversity of the schooling system !

Representative unions are members of appropriate committees at every level :

Local : Schools

Regional : Communities of schools

National : Umbrella organisation and

Government

b. Umbrella organisations (providers)

slide19
c. Other stakeholders such as parents, teachers, students, social partners, etc.

Well developed legal framework for participation at : - School level

- National level

→ Monitoring by the inspectorate

3. Advisory bodies

a. Flemish Educational Council = VLOR

- Composition : all relevant stakeholders + elected headmasters

and teachers

slide20
- Competencies :

* Advice

* Consultation

* Study

→ Involvement of a great many people

→ VLOR : important actor in policymaking

b. Flemish University Council = VLIR

c. Flemish Council for Colleges for Higher Education = VLHORA

slide21
4. Negotiating bodies

- Minister of education

+

- Umbrella organisations, representing the school boards

+

- Teaching unions

slide22
Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective School Leaders

1. Diversity in school boards, organising bodies

Impact on school leadership

Impact on attracting school leaders

2. Differences in challenges and approaches

a. Size matters

b. Professional vs less professional approach to attracting and selecting headmasters

- Scouting potential candidates

- Closed vs open system

- Assessment mechanisms

slide23
c. Training and professional development

- Pre-service training :

* Certificate in community education

* No certificate in private or municipal schools

- In-service-training for headmasters

* A wide supply of academic and other courses

* Peer learning

slide24
Performances of Flemish schools in international surveys. PISA, TIMSS

1. Does the system achieve quality?

a. Excellent average performances

b. Consistency of performances across

- Age cohorts : 13 vs 15-year-old students

- Subjects : Mathematical literacy

Scientific literacy

Reading literacy

- Surveys : PISA – TIMSS

- Periods : 1995 → 2003

slide25
c. A large cohort of excellent performances

2. Does the system achieve equity ?

1. Large gap between excellent and low performances

2. Large impact of socio-economic background

3. Weak performances of first and second generation immigrant students

slide27

HighMathematics performance

Bel -Flemish Community

Hong Kong-China

Finland

Korea

540

Netherlands

Liechtenstein

High performance

Low social equity

High performance

High social equity

Japan

Canada

Belgium

Macao-China

Switzerland

Australia

New Zealand

520

Czech Republic

Iceland

Denmark

France

Sweden

Moderate impact of social background on performance

Austria

Strong impact of social background on performance

Bel - French Community

Ireland

Germany

500

Slovak Republic

Norway

Luxembourg

Hungary

Poland

Spain

Latvia

United States

480

Low performance

High social equity

Low performance

Low social equity

Russian Federation

Italy

Portugal

460

Low Performance

Greece

440

30

20

10

0

slide31
Major challenges for education policies

1. Good governance

a. School leadership : effective school leaders

- Shortages

- Quality of candidates

- Training and professional development

- Mandate vs tenure for heads of secondary schools

b. School leadership : effective school leadership

One-man show versus team leadership

slide32
c. Involvement of all stakeholders

- Participation in elections

- Genuine involvement in committees

d. Professional school boards

- Good pool of excellent candidates ?

2. Achieve quality and equity in the system

- Mitigate impact of socio-economic background

- Raise performances of immigrant students

- Narrow achievement gap between schools

→ Effective school leaders