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Fischer Tropsch Diesel Production Through Black Liquor Gasification. Chelsey MacNeill 2006 SAE WISE Intern. Presentation Overview. Background Issue Definition Fischer Tropsch and Black Liquor What are they? Impact Pulp &Paper Transportation Current and Future R&D Sources Conclusions.

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fischer tropsch diesel production through black liquor gasification

Fischer Tropsch Diesel Production Through Black Liquor Gasification

Chelsey MacNeill

2006 SAE WISE Intern

presentation overview
Presentation Overview
  • Background
  • Issue Definition
  • Fischer Tropsch and Black Liquor
    • What are they?
  • Impact
    • Pulp &Paper
    • Transportation
  • Current and Future R&D Sources
  • Conclusions
background agenda 2020
BackgroundAgenda 2020
  • Created in 1994 with the goal to address emissions and energy consumption within the pulp and paper industry
  • Redefined itself as a partnership among several government agencies, the forest products industry, and academia to develop biofuels technologies
  • June 2006- AF&PA Released Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap
    • Introduces a new business model based on seven technology platforms
    • FT fuels production is a part of the “Advancing the Integrated Forest Product Biorefinery (IFPB)” platform
issue definition
Low efficiency

High pollution

Strict standards

Finite energy source

High dependence on foreign oil

Increased efficiency

Reduced emissions

Advanced Properties

Renewable

Homegrown

Issue Definition

What’s Wrong?

FT through BLG offers…

That was easy you can go home now

issue definition5
Issue Definition

Not so fast there is a catch…

  • High Risk
  • Undeveloped Technology
  • $$$
  • FT BTL standardization
fischer tropsch process
Fischer Tropsch Process
  • Discovered by two German scientists in 1925 in order to produce liquid fuel from coal feedstock
  • A process in which a synthesis gas (i.e. syngas) consisting of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is reacted with a cobalt catalyst under certain pressures and temperatures to produce a liquid distillate
  • The feedstock which is referred to as a syngas can come from coal, methane or gasified biomass such as gasified black liquor
black liquor gasification
Black Liquor Gasification
  • Black Liquor is a pulping residue left over after the removal of cellulose and pulping chemicals for papermaking
  • Today, Black Liquor is inefficiently burned in boilers to produce electricity

But if Black Liquor were gasified…

products pulp paper industry
ProductsPulp & Paper Industry

Potential products from a Forest

Biorefinery Model Mill

  • 1.1 million barrels FT liquid fuel
  • 19 million gallons ethanol
  • 6 million gallons of acetic acid
  • Additional electricity capacity

(Annual Basis)

benefits pulp paper
Benefits Pulp & Paper
  • Yearly quantified benefits of IFPB:
    • $9 million new revenue for pulp and paper industry
    • 175 million barrels of oil per year in energy savings
    • 153 million tons of reduced CO2
    • 165,000 new jobs in rural America
challenges
Challenges
  • Partners are needed to minimize financial and technical risk.
    • No one has attempted to marry biomass gasifiers to a gas-to-liquid plant and integrate both units with a pulp mill
    • The project would be large and technically complicated, relying on multidisciplinary technological breakthroughs
      • more efficient and affordable enzymes are needed for cellulose extraction
impacts diesel industry
ImpactsDiesel Industry

“You are what you eat”

Applies to cars as well

  • Vehicle emissions standards (set by E.P.A) must be supported by the right market fuels
  • Advanced emission control systems require advanced fuels
fuel properties comparison
Fuel Properties Comparison

ppm ppm N/A 103 BTU/lb

what this means to an engine
IN

Sulphur

Aromatics

Low Cetane

Lower HV

OUT

PM, NOx traps

Soot

CO2

Less Energy

What this means to an engine

By reducing sulphur and aromatic content you eliminate the mechanisms to create harmful emissions

who cares effect on original equipment manufacturers
Who Cares?Effect on Original Equipment Manufacturers
  • Immediate reduction in emissions without the wait for fleet turn over
  • Without advanced fuels engine control strategies are limited
  • BTL fuels are compatible with current infrastructure and could be delivered immediately
implementation concerns
Implementation Concerns
  • Standardization
    • ASTM D 975
    • ASTM D 6751
  • Lubricity
  • Compatibility of seal materials
  • A lot of unknowns
    • Further testing in needed to answer technical questions
biomass energy policy r d funding
Biomass Energy PolicyR&D Funding
  • Farm Bill of 2002
  • Farm Bill of 2007
  • Energy Policy Act of 2005
farm bill 0f 2002
Farm Bill 0f 2002
  • 1st Farm Bill to contain an energy title
  • Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (Sec. 9006)
    • Established competitive grant programs to support R&D of biorefineries
    • Cut then restored
    • Provides roughly $20 MM/year
epact 2005
EPACT 2005
  • Integrated Biorefinery Demonstration Projects
    • Authorized $100 MM FY 07, $125 FY 08
  • Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000
    • $142 million has been awarded for 62 projects
    • Also funded through Farm Bill
  • Regional Biomass Energy Programs
    • Received NO FY 06 funding
    • Was not reauthorized in EPACT 2005
recommendations congress
RecommendationsCongress
  • Make a long term commitment to clean, renewable alternatives by:
    • Reauthorizing the Energy Title of the 2007 Farm Bill
    • Continuing to fund Biomass R&D Act of 2000
    • Creating of National Bioenergy Trust Fund
    • Considering funding the Regional Biomass programs through Fuel Choices for American Security Act
recommendations agenda 2020
RecommendationsAgenda 2020
  • Create a Committee whose goals would be:
    • Lobby Congress
      • Most biofuels legislation are directed towards corn ethanol and biodiesel because they have worked towards recognition
    • Work towards ASTM standardization
      • New Standard for FT fuels independent of feedstock or as a biodiesel
    • Help organize and prepare applications to federal grants to obtain funding for projects within the pulp and paper industry
questions
Questions

Academia

USDA

U.S DOE

AF&PA