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FARMING SYSTEMS. IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD. THE TERM. FARMING SYSTEMS refers to an ordered combination of crops grown, livestock produced, husbandry methods and cultural practices followed. CLASSIFICATION. TREE CROPS

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farming systems

FARMING SYSTEMS

IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

the term
THE TERM
  • FARMING SYSTEMSrefers to an ordered combination of crops grown, livestock produced, husbandry methods and cultural practices followed.
classification
CLASSIFICATION
  • TREE CROPS
    • fruit, nuts, beverage crop, rubber, pharmaceuticals, oil, lumber, paper, sweeteners, ornamentals, fuel, etc.
classification continued
CLASSIFICATION(continued)
  • TILLAGE CROPS
    • cereal grains, oilseeds, vegetable crops, sugar crops, fiber crops, small fruits, coarse grains, etc.
classification continued5
CLASSIFICATION(continued)
  • ALTERNATING TILLAGE CROPS
    • hay crops, silage, green chop, “fodder”, etc. (i.e. sorghums, millet, alfalfa, small grains, grass, etc.)
classification continued6
CLASSIFICATION(continued)
  • GRASSLAND/GRAZING LAND
    • native range/grass, forbs, sage, shrubs, legumes, etc.
farming systems7
FARMING SYSTEMS
  • The particularFarming Systemfound in a country or region is the result of a unique combination of factors, many of which are causative or associative in nature (i.e. Bananas and Wheat).
factors conditions
FACTORS/CONDITIONS
  • Influencing/impacting the development of specific Farming Systems.
    • Climate, Elevation, Soil, Moisture, Soil stability, Pests, Technological adaptation & feasibility, Economic infrastructure and Social Infrastructure.
factors impacting farming systems
FACTORS IMPACTING FARMING SYSTEMS
  • Climate - temperature & rainfall
  • Elevation - temperature
  • Soil - fertility, pH & organic matter
  • Land (physical) - soil type, texture, depth, permeability & slope.
  • Moisture - natural rainfall, irrigation, drainage, flood control, etc.
factors impacting farming systems continued
FACTORS IMPACTINGFARMING SYSTEMS(continued)
  • Soil stability - erosion & salinity
  • Pests - weeds, insects, diseases & predators.
  • Technological adaptation andfeasibility - equipment, cultural practices, chemicals, new cultivars, etc.
factors impacting farming systems continued11
FACTORS IMPACTING FARMING SYSTEMS (continued)
  • Economic infrastructure - market access, government regulations, transportation system & processing industry.
  • Social infrastructure - work ethic, class/caste system, land tenure, education, diet, culture & dissemination of information.
major factors impacting the classification of farming systems
MAJOR FACTORS IMPACTING THE CLASSIFICATION OF FARMING SYSTEMS
  • Climate
  • Level of Technology
  • Infrastructure
  • Production Incentives
  • Political Constraints
  • Human Resources
sub classification
SUB - CLASSIFICATION
  • Very Extensive - broad, much variation, inter cropping, strip cropping, involving several different different crops or livestock species.
  • Extensive
  • Intensive
  • Very Intensive - double cropping, crop rotation, crop residue management, erosioncontrol.
nature extent of farming systems
NATURE & EXTENT OF FARMING SYSTEMS
  • Subsistence farming - produces only enough food and fiber for individual or family needs. 1) Involves the gathering/collection of food, fuel & building materials, 2) Rarely ventures into situations involving commercial production, 3) Requires little in the way of inputs, marketaccess, monetary exchange, etc.
subsistence agriculture continued
SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE(continued)
  • Hunter/Gathers
  • Nomads/Bedouins
  • Slash & Burn
nature extent continued
NATURE & EXTENT(continued)
  • Commercial Farming Systems -characterized by the commercial production of agricultural commodities for specific markets and capital intensive.
types of commercial farming systems
TYPES OF COMMERCIAL FARMING SYSTEMS
  • Tropical & sub-tropical plantations
  • Temperate zone grain production
  • Vegetable & fruit production
  • Livestock production
  • Mixed crop & livestock production
sustainable agriculture
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Protects soil fertility
  • Optimizes management & resources
  • Reduces the use of nonrenewable resources
  • Promotes opportunities in family farming
  • Achieves integration of natural biological cycles & controls
collective farming systems
COLLECTIVE FARMING SYSTEMS
  • Agricultural operations in nations with centrally planned economies.
  • Usually operates under a rigid system of collective or state farms.