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Fabric reinforcements. John Summerscales ACMC University of Plymouth. Outline of this lecture. Woven fabrics Braids Knitted fabrics Stitched fabrics (non-crimp fabrics) Bonded/felted fabrics. Fabric description. Weft in weave Course in knit. Warp in weave Wale in knit.

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fabric reinforcements

Fabric reinforcements

John Summerscales

ACMC University of Plymouth

outline of this lecture
Outline of this lecture
  • Woven fabrics
  • Braids
  • Knitted fabrics
  • Stitched fabrics (non-crimp fabrics)
  • Bonded/felted fabrics
fabric description
Fabric description

Weft in weave

Course in knit

Warp in weave

Wale in knit

  • warp fibres picks (shots) run full length of the fabric
  • weft fibres (shuttle direction in weaves) ends run across the fabric
  • fabrics are designated by areal weight normally grams/square metre (gsm)
balanced fabric
Balanced fabric
  • a balanced fabric would have
  • equal numbers of equal weight tows/metre in both warp and weft
  • Crimp
  • crimp ratio = yarn length/cloth length
woven fabrics 1 weave styles
Woven fabrics 1: weave styles
  • Plain
    • high crimp, poor mechanical properties
  • Twill
    • intermediate properties
  • Satin
    • low crimp, good mechanical properties
    • but beware of orientation of each face
  • also matt, leno, flow-enhancement …
woven fabrics 2
Woven fabrics 2
  • plain weave
  • 2 orthogonal sets of fibres (ηo = 1/2)
  • high crimp, hence out of plane orientation (ηo < 1/2)
woven fabrics 3 twill weave
Woven fabrics 3: twill weave
  • Note the recurring diagonal pattern
woven fabrics 4 satin weave
Woven fabrics 4: satin weave
  • different fibre orientation on each face
  • interlace position is irregular
woven fabrics 5 flow enhanced
Woven fabrics 5: Flow-enhanced
  • constrained tow (blue) creates flow space
  • mechanical properties decrease
triaxial fabrics
Triaxial fabrics
  • Triaxial (three directions in a single layer)
    • usually -60°/0°/+60°
    • Image from http://hexdome.com/weaving/triaxial/weaving/index.php
three dimensional fabrics
Three-dimensional fabrics
  • 3-D weaving
    • usually multi-layer
      • 3D angle interlock (shown)
      • 3D orthogonal (90° binder)
    • used for preforms

Image from http://www.designscopecompany.com/en/infopattern/products/products.php?itemid=75&lang=en&page=productTree

Layer to layer interlock weave Angle interlock weave Orthogonal non-crimp interlock weave

Images from AE Bogdanovich and MH Mohamed (3Tex Inc), SAMPE Journal, 2009, 45(6), 8-28.

braid
Braid
  • interlacing three or more threads to producea tubular reinforcement with fibres at ±45° to the principal axis of the tube
  • braid calculator (A&P Technology)
  • image from
    • http://www.eurocarbon.com/overbraiding.htm
  • Videos:
    • Braiding the A-pillar for theLexus LFA sports car
    • Overbraiding at Eurocarbon(72 second 7 MB MPEG)
knitted fabrics
Knitted fabrics
  • knitting is intermeshing of loops of yarn
    • Marvin (1961-69) knitted rocket nose cones
  • can form complex shapes or create a matrix for aligned fibres:
    • WIWK = weft-insertion warp knit or = warp-insertion weft knit
  • image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knitting
stitched non crimp fabrics
Stitched (non-crimp) fabrics
  • detail of the stitch photo of real fabric cross-section of laminate
  • unidirectional layers stitched together
  • Beware! stitch fibre may be incompatible with the matrix
  • images from http://www.aer.bris.ac.uk/research/structures/mrw/sylvain.html
  • http://cnknitting.en.alibaba.com/product/50139488/50653601/multiaxial_fiberglass_fabric/E_Glass_Triaxial_Fabric.html
bonded felted fabrics
Bonded/felted fabrics
  • Chopped strand mat
  • Unifilo continuous random swirl fibre mat
  • Bonding reinforcing scrims (e.g. Crenette)
pre impregnated fabrics prepreg
Pre-impregnated fabrics “prepreg”
  • Pre-impregnated fibres/fabrics (lecture C8)
    • pre-pregs
  • Resin film infusion (lecture C7)
    • thick sheet of B-stage
  • both systems have a limited shelf-life
  • usually stored in freezer to retard cure
    • allow to warm up to avoid condensation
    • out-life should be recorded
summary
Summary
  • Woven fabrics
  • Braids
  • Knitted fabrics
  • Stitched fabrics (non-crimp fabrics)
  • Bonded/felted fabrics