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DRAMA. HISTORY OF WESTERN DRAMA. DRAMA. Fiction in performance A prose or verse composition intended for representation by actors impersonating the characters and performing the dialogue and action

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  • Fiction in performance
  • A prose or verse composition intended for representation by actors impersonating the characters and performing the dialogue and action
  • the general term for performances in which actors impersonate the actions and speech of fictional or historical characters for the entertainment of an audience, either on a stage or by means of a broadcast
  • a particular example of this art, i.e. a play
aristotle s drama elements
Aristotle's Drama Elements
  • PLOT – what happens in a play; the order of events, the story as opposed to the theme; what happens rather than what it means.
  • THEME – what the play means as opposed to what happens (plot); the main idea within the play.
  • CHARACTER – the personality or the part an actor represents in a play; a role played by an actor in a play.
aristotle s drama elements5
Aristotle's Drama Elements
  • DICTION/LANGUAGE/DIALOGUE – the word choices made by the playwright and the enunciation of the actors delivering the lines.
  • MUSIC/RHYTHM – by music Aristotle meant the sound, rhythm and melody of the speeches.
  • SPECTACLE – the visual elements of the production of a play; the scenery, costumes, and special effects in a production.
greek drama
Greek Drama
  • Three types of drama were composed in Athens
    • Satyr
      • Was not taken seriously until greek Enlightenment
    • Tragedy
      • A drama which concerns better than average people (heroes, kings, gods) who suffer a transition from good fortune to bad fortune, and who speak in an elevated language
      • a fiction which is neither true nor believable
      • Purging of the soul (catharsis)
      • Character flaw
greek drama7
Greek Drama
  • Three types of drama were composed in Athens
    • Satyr
      • Was not taken seriously until greek Enlightenment
    • Tragedy
      • A drama which concerns better than average people (heroes, kings, gods) who suffer a transition from good fortune to bad fortune, and who speak in an elevated language
      • a fiction which is neither true nor believable
      • Purging of the soul (catharsis)
      • Character flaw
elizabethan theater
Elizabethan Theater
  • Part of the English Renaissance Theater
  • Plays perfomed in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603)
    • Jacobean theater – King James I (1603 - 1625)
    • Caroline theater – King Charkes I (1625-1642)
elizabethan theater9
Elizabethan Theater
  • Three venues
    • Inn yards
      • The early days of Elizabethan commercial theater Performances held in private London Inns.
      • Inexpensive.
      • Held indoors or the yard.
      • Audience capacity up to 500
    • Open air amphitheaters
      • Think of a public outdoor structure like the Coliseum or a small football stadium with a capacity of between 1500 and 3000 people
elizabethan theater10
Elizabethan Theater
  • Three venues
    • Indoor playhouses
      • A small, private indoor hall.
      • Open to anyone who would pay but more expensive with more select audiences.
      • Audience capacity up to 500
elizabethan theater11
Elizabethan Theater
  • William Shakespeare
    • Christopher Marlowe (could have been much better than Shakespeare: died young)
  • Theatre had an unsavory reputation. London authorities refused to allow plays within the city, so theatres outside the authority of the city administration
elizabethan theater12
Elizabethan Theater
  • The first proper theatre as we know it was the Theatre, built at Shoreditch in 1576. Before this time plays were performed in the courtyard of inns, or sometimes, in the houses of noblemen.
  • After the Theatre, further open air playhouses opened in the London area, including the Rose (1587), and the Hope (1613). The most famous playhouse was the Globe (1599) built by the company in which Shakespeare had a stake
elizabethan theater13
Elizabethan Theater
  • The Globe was only in use until 1613, when a canon fired during a performance of Henry VIII caught the roof on fire and the building burned to the ground.
  • Theatre performances were held in the afternoon, because, of course, there was no artificial lighting. Women attended plays, though often the prosperous woman would wear a mask to disguise her identity. Further, no women performed in the plays. Female roles were generally performed by young boys.
modern drama
Modern Drama
  • Great influences
    • 19th-century Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen
    • the 20th-century German theater practitioner Bertolt Brecht
  • each inspired a tradition of imitators, which include many of the greatest playwrights of the modern era
  • Different techniques but with the same effect
modern drama15
Modern Drama
  • both modernist and realist and incorporates formal experimentation, meta-theatricality, and social critique
  • In terms of the traditional theoretical discourse of genre
    • Ibsen's work has been described as the culmination of "liberal tragedy"
    • Brecht's has been aligned with an historicised comedy
modern drama16
Modern Drama

Other important playwrights of the modern era include

  • August StrindbergAnton Chekhov, Frank Wedekind, Maurice Maeterlinck, Federico García Lorca, Eugene O'Neill, Luigi Pirandello, George Bernard Shaw, Ernst Toller, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Arthur Miller, Tennessee Williams, Jean Genet, Eugène Ionesco, Samuel Beckett, Harold Pinter, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Dario Fo, Heiner Müller, and Caryl Churchill
different forms
  • Opera
    • arose during the Renaissance
    • attempt to revive the classical Greek drama tradition in which both music and theater were combined
    • Undergone a lot of changes and has become an important part of theater nowadays
different forms19
  • Pantomime
    • follow in the tradition of fables and folk tales, usually there is a lesson learned, and with some help from the audience the hero/heroine saves the day.
    • uses stock characters seen in masque and again commedia dell'arte (comedy of the art of improvisation), these characters include the villain (doctore), the clown/servant (Arlechino/Harlequin/buttons), the lovers etc.
    • has an emphasis on moral dilemmas, and good always triumphs over evil
    • very entertaining making it a very effective way of reaching many people
different forms20
  • Creative Drama
    • dramatic activities and games used primarily in educational settings with children.
    • started in the United States in the early 1900s
    • Winifred Ward is considered to be the founder of creative drama in education, establishing the first academic use of drama in Evanston, Illinois.
terms in mindanao drama
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Ritual and dance
  • Sinakulo
    • a Lenten play that is a dramatic presentation of the Passion of Jesus Christ (his trial, suffering and death).
    • performed during Holy Week in the Philippines for eight nights, from Palm Sunday to Easter, to present the entire sinakulo.
terms in mindanao drama23
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Pasyon
    • a verse narrative of the life and suffering of Jesus Christ
    • structured in five-line stanzas, with each line containing eight syllables
    • commonly sung during Holy Week, starting Holy Monday
    • Huge crowds gather around the reader of the pasyon to listen and reflect. The reading of the pasyon is a traditional religious practice in the Philippines.
    • It is seen by many of its practitioners as a vow or panata.
terms in mindanao drama24
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Komedya / moro-moro
    • colorful theatrical tradition in the Philippines that describes the conflicts between the Muslims and the Christians
    • used by the Spanish as a method to spread Christianity in the country
    • performed at the local fiesta
terms in mindanao drama25
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Komedya / moro-moro
    • Moro-Moro is a type of Secular Komedya
      • portrays the clash between the Muslims and the Christians where the forbidden romance between the prince and the princess is settled by having the non-Christian be converted to Christianity or by his or her death followed by a resurrection through divine intervention.
      • Tibag or arakya is a popular secular komedya which is featured during the annual Santacruzan. The story evolves on the search for the Holy Cross by Queen Elena and her son, Emoperor Constantino
terms in mindanao drama26
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Komedya / moro-moro
    • The Religious Komedya is also called Komedya de Santo centers on the life of Christ or of any saint.
    • It usually seen during church celebrations.
    • The actors move in a stylized way, have extravagant costumes and elaborately choreographed war scenes.
terms in mindanao drama27
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Awit
    • The awit is a form of Filipino poetry
    • it is closer to the narrative
    • The following are characteristics observed in the awit, Florante at Laura
      • 4 lines/stanza;
      • a rhyme scheme of AAAA
      • a slight pause on the sixth syllable
      • each stanza is usually a complete grammatically-correct sentence
      • each stanza is full of figures of speech
      • the author is usually anonymous
terms in mindanao drama28
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Korido
    • Ang korido ay isang uri ng panitikang pilipino
    • isang uri ng tulang nakuha natin sa impluwensya ng mga Espanyol
    • Ito ay may sukat na walong pantig bawat linya at may apat na linya sa isang stanza.
    • Ang korido ay binibigkas sa pamamagitan ng pakantang pagpapahayag ng mga tula.
terms in mindanao drama29
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Awit vs. Korido
    • Ang kaibahan ng awit at korido ay maaaring nasa sukat at anyo:
      • Mabilis ang bigkas ng korido, may kabagalan naman ang awit
      • Ang korido ay may walong pantig at binibigkas sa kumpas ng martsa “allegro”, samantala ang awit ay may labindalawang pantig at inaawit na mabagal sa saliw ng gitara o bandurya “allegro”
      • Ang ikinaganda ng awit ay sa mga aral na ipinahihiwatig samantala sa korido ang ikinawiwili ng mga mambabasa ay ang kuwento o kasaysayang napapaloob dito
terms in mindanao drama30
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Sarswela
    • (Espanyol: zarzuela bigkas)
    • Ang sarswelaay isang Kastilang uri ng lirika-dramatiko
    • nagpapalit mula sa binibigkas patungo sa inaawit na mga eksena
    • sinasama ang mala-opera at tanyag na awitin, gayon din ang sayaw
    • lumawak ang uring ito sa mga kolonya ng Espanya, kabilang ang Pilipinas na naging isang tradisyon
terms in mindanao drama31
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Bodabil
    • Bodabil is an indigenized form of vaudeville, which had been introduced in the Philippines around the turn of the 20th century.
    • It featured a hodgepodge of musical numbers, short-form comedy and dramatic skits, and even magic acts, often staged inside the theaters of Manila.
    • Bodabil probed the vehicle for the popularization of musical trends and musicians, performance genres and performers.
terms in mindanao drama32
Terms in Mindanao Drama
  • Protest drama
  • Dance Drama
  • Sedition is a term of law which refers to overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order.
  • It includes subversion of a constitution and incitement of discontent (or resistance) to lawful authority. Sedition may include any commotion, though not aimed at direct and open violence against the laws.
  • A seditionist is one who engages in or promotes the interests of sedition.
seditious drama
Seditious drama
  • “...On its feet, rabid with fury and frenzy, for three hours...”
  • Filipino patriots who, devastated by a superior military power, with meager financial resources, wrote play after play in the vernacular, creatively transforming theater into guerilla warfare, as a desperate last-ditch struggle to keep revolutionary flames burning until the restoration of Independence.
walang sugat
Walang Sugat
  • Seditious Drama?
  • Who are the main characters of the play?
  • What happened in the story?
  • What are the conflicts of the play? How is this related to the history of the Philippines?
  • What are the elements of a sarswela? How are these elements shown in Walang Sugat?
  • What was the role of the servant character in giving comic relief to the audience?
seditious drama37
Seditious drama
  • Seditious play writers
    • Aurelio Tolentino – Kahapon Ngayon at Bukas
    • Juan Matapang Cruz – Hindi Aco Patay
    • Gabriel Beato Francisco – Ang Katipunan
    • Pantaleon Lopez – Ave de rapiña / Ibong Manlulupig