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Division 1 Introduction to Advanced Prehospital Care. Chapter 7 Intravenous Access and Medication Administration Part 1 Principles and Routes of Medication Administration. Topics. Aseptic Technique Medication Administration Routes Medication Package

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slide2
Chapter 7Intravenous Access and Medication AdministrationPart 1Principles and Routes of Medication Administration
topics
Topics
  • Aseptic Technique
  • Medication Administration Routes
  • Medication Package
  • Anatomy and Physiology Related to Medication Administration
six rights of drug administration
Six Rights of Drug Administration
  • Right person
  • Right drug
  • Right dose
  • Right time
  • Right route
  • Right documentation
slide6
Always take appropriate body substance isolation measures to reduce your risk of exposure during medication administration.
slide7

Body substance

isolation equipment

medical asepsis
Medical Asepsis
  • It is important to keep the ambulance and all the equipment clean.
  • Sterile
    • Free of all forms of life
  • Medically clean
    • Involves careful handling to preventcontamination
needle handling precautions
Needle Handling Precautions
  • Minimize the tasks performed in a moving ambulance.
  • Immediately dispose of used sharps in a sharps container.
  • Recap needles only as a last resort.
medication administration and documentation
Medication Administration and Documentation
  • Record all information concerning the patient and medication including:
    • Indication for drug administration
    • Dosage and route delivered
    • Patient response to the medication
      • Both positive and negative
slide12
Percutaneous drug administration is drugs applied to and absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes.
transdermal
Transdermal
  • Absorbed through the skin at a slow, steady rate
  • Method:
    • BSI
    • Clean administration site
    • Apply medication
    • Leave medication in place for required time. Monitor the patient for desirable or adverse effects.
mucous membranes
Mucous Membranes
  • Absorbed through the mucous membranes at a moderate to rapid rate
use a medication dropper to place the prescribed dosage on the conjunctival sac
Use a medication dropper to place the prescribed dosage on the conjunctival sac.

Eye Drop Administration

pulmonary drug administration
Pulmonary Drug Administration
  • Medications are administered into the pulmonary system via inhalation or injection.
endotracheal tube
Endotracheal Tube
  • Several medications can be administered through an endotracheal tube:
    • Lidocaine
    • Epinephrine
    • Atropine
    • Naloxone
enteral drug administration
Enteral Drug Administration
  • The delivery of any medication that is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract
oral drug administration
Oral Drug Administration
  • Any medication taken by mouth and swallowed into the GI tract.
  • Be sure the patient has an adequate level of consciousness to prevent aspiration.
oral drug forms
Capsules

Tablets

Pills

Enteric coated/time releasecapsules andtablets

Elixirs

Emulsions

Lozenges

Suspensions

Syrups

Oral Drug Forms
equipment for oral administration
Soufflé cup

Medicine cup

Medicine dropper

Teaspoon

Oral syringe

Nipple

Equipment forOral Administration
general principles of oral administration
General Principles of Oral Administration
  • Use appropriate BSI measures.
  • Note whether to administer medication with food or on empty stomach.
  • Gather any necessary equipment.
  • Have patient sit upright when not contraindicated.
  • Place the medication into your patient’s mouth. Allow self-administration; assist when needed.
  • Follow administration with 4-8 ounces of water and ensure that patient has swallowed the medication.
gastric tube administration
Gastric Tube Administration
  • Gastric tubes provide access directly to the GI system.
rectal administration
Rectal Administration
  • The rectum’s extreme vascularity promotes rapid drug absorption.
  • Medications do not travel through the liver, and are not subject to hepatic alteration.
parenteral drug administration
Parenteral Drug Administration
  • Drug administration outside of the gastrointestinal tract
syringes and needles
Syringes and Needles

Syringe

Hypodermicneedle

kinds of parenteral drug containers
Kinds of Parenteral Drug Containers
  • Glass ampules
  • Single and multidose vials
  • Nonconstituted syringes
  • Prefilled syringes
  • Intravenous medication fluids
ampules and vials
Ampules and Vials

Vials

Ampules

information on drug labels
Information on Drug Labels
  • Name of medication
  • Expiration date
  • Total dose and concentration
insert the hypodermic needle into the rubber top and inject the air from the syringe into the vial
Insert the hypodermic needle into the rubber top and inject the air from the syringe into the vial.
slide56

The nonconstituted drug vial actually consists of two vials, one containing a powdered medication and one containing a liquid mixing solution.

prefilled or preloaded syringes
Prefilled or Preloaded Syringes
  • Confirm medication indications and patient allergies.
  • Confirm prefilled syringe label (name, dose, and expiration date).
  • Assemble the prefilled syringe. Remove the pop-off caps and screw together.
  • Reconfirm indication, drug, dose, and route of administration.
  • Administer appropriately via the indicated route.
  • Properly dispose of the needle and syringe.
parenteral routes
Parenteral Routes
  • Intradermal injection
  • Subcutaneous injection
  • Intramuscular injection
  • Intravenous access
  • Intraosseous infusion
prepare the equipment
Prepare the equipment.

© Scott Metcalfe

check the medication80
Check the medication.

© Scott Metcalfe

draw up the medication81
Draw up the medication.

© Scott Metcalfe

prep the site
Prep the site.

© Scott Metcalfe

monitor the patient85
Monitor the patient.

© Scott Metcalfe

intramuscular injection sites
Intramuscular Injection Sites
  • Deltoid
  • Dorsal gluteal
  • Vastus lateralis
  • Rectus femoris
prepare the equipment89
Prepare the equipment.

© Scott Metcalfe

check the medication90
Check the medication.

© Scott Metcalfe

draw up the medication91
Draw up the medication.

© Scott Metcalfe

prepare the site
Prepare the site.

© Scott Metcalfe

monitor the patient95
Monitor the patient.

© Scott Metcalfe

summary
Summary
  • Aseptic Technique
  • Medication Administration Routes
  • Medication Package
  • Anatomy and Physiology related to Medication Administration