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Internet and Web Concepts What is a URL? The Internet and the World Wide Web (subset) What is a browser? HTTP is? cs.uiuc.edu means… What is “hypertext?” What do we mean by client-server? Server Client HTTP Home Page Browser LAN Modem ISP KEY CONCEPTS

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internet and web concepts
Internet and Web Concepts
  • What is a URL?
  • The Internet and the World Wide Web (subset)
  • What is a browser?
  • HTTP is?
  • cs.uiuc.edu means…
  • What is “hypertext?”
  • What do we mean by client-server?

CS 105 Spring 2006

slide2
Server

Client

HTTP

Home Page

Browser

LAN

Modem

ISP

KEY CONCEPTS

CS 105 Spring 2006

connecting to the internet
Connecting to the Internet

ISP (Internet Service Provider)—connects to the Internet, and the user pays the hook-up fee and use charges. Examples: AOL, MSN, UIUC

  • Modem—Uses a phone line to reach a server
  • Cable — needs a cable modem (not really a modem!)

Only if you have a T1 line do you have a direct connection to the Internet

CS 105 Spring 2006

other means of connecting
Other means of connecting
  • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) — uses a DSL transceiver. You use your regular phone line, too.
  • ISDN connections use a special digital phone line that must be installed to your home by your local telephone company. They need a “Terminal Adapter”– also often called a “modem” (but it isn’t one)
  • Wireless Involves no wiring, just an antenna!

CS 105 Spring 2006

programs communicate not computers
Programs communicate, not computers

A program on one computer uses protocol software to contact a program on another computer– a protocol is an agreed format that computers on the Internet use to communicate.

  • E-mail protocols:
    • SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
    • POP - Post Office Protocol
  • File transfer protocol: FTP
  • It is all based on…

CS 105 Spring 2006

terminology
Terminology

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol

TCP/IP is an agreed format that computers on the Internet use to communicate. Any computer that understands TCP/IP can connect to the Internet. Involves packets.

voip internet telephony
VOIP -- Internet Telephony
  • Make your phone calls over the Internet! Voice over Internet Protocol; using packet based networks instead of the standard telephones to send voice data

CS 105 Spring 2006

converting a voice to digits
Converting a voice to digits
  • Digital phones convert your voice into binary information (1s and 0s) and then compress the data
  • The person you talk to hears your voice after the 1s and 0s are changed back to sound

CS 105 Spring 2006

slide9
Electronic messages are sent to your account and stored on a ___________________.

You send a message to someone. First it goes to a server

CS 105 Spring 2006

slide10
Email software is later used to download messages from the __________ that is storing the message.

You receive email from the server, where it has been stored for you

CS 105 Spring 2006

client relationship
Client/________ Relationship

What is a server?

  • Some computers on the network offer services that others can access.
    • ftp server -- email
    • Yahoo, Google --
    • Library catalogues

Your query goes to the server

Server sends back information

CS 105 Spring 2006

peer to peer
Peer-to-Peer
  • Systems like KaZaa
  • Files held on individual machines rather than centralized server

CS 105 Spring 2006

internet addressing ip addresses
Internet Addressing -IP Addresses
  • Computer ports, called servers, connected to the Internet have unique addresses.

222.230.112.5

IP number is a 32-bit address in four parts, of 8 bits each, and therefore, in 8 bits you can only represent the numbers 0 to 255 (256 possible numbers). Thus this address is not possible:

299.230.112.5

222.230.112.6

222.230.112.7

CS 105 Spring 2006

internet addressing domain names
Internet Addressing -Domain names
  • These 4-part numbers are converted into easy-to-remember domain names.

uiuc.edu, google.com, eBay.com

google

amazon

CS 105 Spring 2006

terminology15
Terminology
  • HTTP -- HyperText Transfer Protocol

The protocol used for a web document (HTML).

Example: http://www.uiuc.edu

  • HTTPS:
    • A HTTP protocol that provides for more secure web communications by including encryption methods.
domain naming system
Domain Naming System
  • provides mnemonic help in identifying sites
  • organizes the names of computers, subnetworks, and larger networks
  • reading left-to-right, information becomes more general

cs.uiuc.edu

educational site

University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign

Computer Science Department

CS 105 Spring 2006

the url
http://www.cs.uiuc.edu/~roberta/

http:// ....... specifies Hypertext Transfer Protocol,

/ www.cs.uiuc.edu ......... Identifies location of web server

~ means bypass intermediate directories and go straight to the directory named roberta (~ is called a tilde)

index.html ........ is the name of the home page and will appear whether or not you type index.html!

The URL

CS 105 Spring 2006

internet addressing url example
Internet Addressing -URL Example

Secure

Protocol

https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/moor12/www/cluster/news.html

Folder

HTML

Document

Top Level

Domain

Student or Employee

CS 105 Spring 2006

internet addressing top level domains
Internet Addressing -Top level domains
  • You can find out who owns a domain name.
    • www.networksolutions.com/cgi-bin/whois/whois

uiuc.edu

google.com

whitehouse.gov

CS 105 Spring 2006

top level domains
Top Level Domains

.com Commercial businesses

.org Non-profit organizations

.net Network services

.gov Government agencies

.edu Educational institutions

.mil Military

.int International

.nom For individual users

.web Web-based businesses

.AERO, .BIZ, .COOP, .INFO, .MUSEUM, .NAME, and .PRO

CS 105 Spring 2006

common country domains
Common Country Domains
  • .au Australia
  • .fi Finland
  • .cn China
  • .uk United Kingdom
  • .us United States
  • .il Israel
  • .ch Switzerland
  • .mx Mexico

CS 105 Spring 2006

country ids
Country IDs

CS 105 Spring 2006

sample email address
Sample Email Address

Jin45@uiuc.edu

username@hostname.com

“at”

Name of your ISP’s

host computer

Your userID

CS 105 Spring 2006

using ph to find a person s email address
Using ph to find a person’s email address
  • http://www.uiuc.edu/cgi-bin/ph

CS 105 Spring 2006

terminology26
Terminology
  • HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

A convention of codes used to display content such as words, pictures, etc. Without HTML code, a document would be unreadable by a Web browser. Right now, HTML is the Language of the World Wide Web, but the web is moving toXHTML

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the universal format for structured documents and data on the Web—it is compatible with XHTML but not with HTML. XML is built into the Windows XP operating system.