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COMPUTERS IN THE CLASSROOM CT 243 Emery Roth CHAPTER 2 Communications, Networks, the Internet, and the World Wide Web Q&A What are the two main categories of software…

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CT 243

Emery Roth


What are the two main categories of software…

and how are they different? (1.13-1.14)


What are the “National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers” (NETS-T), and where do they come from? (1.19-1.20)


What is a “motherboard,”


what are its two main components? (1.08)


What are 5 components of a computer?

…and give examples of each. (1.07-1.10)


What is, “the Internet,”


what are several ways it is useful for teachers? (1.17-1.18)


Click on “Chapter 1”

From the menu on the left, select “Integration Corner,” then “chapter 1”

Scroll to any level of personal interest & explore one resource



  • Gather by teams to regroup
  • Read at least 3 sketches.
  • Select group recorder (WP).
  • Process:
    • I really liked…
    • I learned to…
    • How do I…?
    • Publish???

Drawing Tablet

  • pressure-sensitive
  • designed to work with software applications that simulate real artists’ media


posted on blackboard & web site

Web site:

  • Define communications
  • Identify the basic components of a communications system
  • Describe how and why network computers are used in schools and school districts
  • Explain how the Internet works
  • Describe the World Wide Web portion of the Internet
  • Specify how Web documents are linked to one another
  • Explain the use of Web browser software
  • Explain how to use a Web search tool to find information
  • Identify several types of multimedia products available on the Web
  • Explain how Internet services such as e-mail, newsgroups, chat rooms, and instant messaging work
  • Describe how to connect to the Internet and the WWW
communications networks
Communications Networks
  • Communications - refers to the transmission of data and information between two or more computers using a communications channel such as standard telephone lines
  • Communications network - is a collection of computers and other equipment organized to share data, information, hardware, and software
  • Communications software - programs that manage the transmissions of data between computers
  • Communications channel - is the path the data follows as the data is transmitted from the sending equipment to the receiving equipment in a communications system.
communications networks continued
Communications Networks Continued
  • Transmission media - is the physical materials or other means used to establish a communications channel
    • Twisted-pair cable - consists of pairs of plastic-coated copper wire twisted together
    • Other examples (coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, microwave transmission, communications satellites, and wireless transmissions
communications networks continued21
Communications Networks Continued
  • Digital signals - are individual electric pulses that a computer uses to represent data
  • Analog signals - continuous electrical wave used for telephone transmission and other devices
  • Modem - converts analog signals into digital signals
  • Network interface card (NIC) - connects computers directly to a school or business network without using a modem
types of networks
Types of Networks
  • Local area networks (LAN) - is a communications network that covers a limited geographical area such as a school, an office, a building, or a group of buildings
  • Wireless LAN (WLAN) - uses no wires, instead it uses wireless media, such as radio waves.
  • Wide area networks - covers a large geographical region and used regular telephone cables, digital lines, microwaves, wireless systems, satellites, or othercombinations of communications channels.
  • Home networks - if you have multiple computers in your home or home office you can create your own network
history of the internet
History of the Internet
  • ARPANET - Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
    • allow scientists to share information
    • parts could function even if some of it went down
    • Established 1969 and by 1984 it had 1,000 hosts
  • In 1986 NSFnet joined together with ARPANET to serve as the backbone of the Internet
  • In 1995 NSF turned over responsibilities to major corporations
  • Internet2 - extremely high speed network that will develop and test advanced Internet technologies for research, teaching, and learning.
how the internet works
How the Internet works
  • Step 1. Data is divided into small pieces, called packets.
  • Step 2. Packets travel over the Internet via routers.
  • Step 3. At the destination, the packets are reassembled into the original message.
    • Packet switching
  • TCP/IP - transmission control protocol/Internet protocol - protocol used to define packet switching
isp vs osp vs wsp
ISP vs. OSP vs. WSP
  • Internet service provider (ISP) - allows you to connect to the internet for a fee. (ex. Netzero, ATT)
  • Online service provider (OSP) - allows you to connect to the internet and also provides other personalized options for a higher fee than an ISP
  • Wireless service provider (WSP) - allows users to connect to the internet without any wires. (ex. Palm)
ways to connect to the internet
Ways to Connect to the Internet
  • Dial-up access - you use your computer and a modem to dial in to the internet. (56k)
  • Cable modem - you use your existing tv cable and a cable modem (20-50 x faster)
  • Digital subscriber line - you use digital phone lines and dsl card. (25-150 x faster)
internet backbone
Internet Backbone
  • Step 1: Request a web page from your home computer
  • Step 2: Modem converts digital to analog
  • Step 3: Data travels through telephone lines to local ISP
  • Step 4: Data may travel through 1 or more routers
  • Step 5: Regional ISP uses lines, leased from a telephone company, to send data to a national ISP
  • Step 6: A national ISP routes data across the country to another national ISP
  • Step 7: Data moves from a national ISP to a local ISP to a server that contains the requested site
  • Step 8: The server requests the data and sends it back through the internet.
internet addresses
Internet Addresses
  • The Internet uses addresses the same way the post office does. Each computer has a specific numeric address.


  • Domain name - the text version of a computer address
  • Domain abbreviations - .com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .net, .org, .k12
  • Country abbreviations
    • Au - Australia; CA - Canada; UK - United Kingdom
world wide web
World Wide Web
  • The Web - consists of electronic documents that have built in hyperlinks to other related documents
  • Hyperlinks - allow users to navigate quickly from one page to another
  • Web page - electronic document viewed on the Web that can contain audio, video, text, etc.
  • Web site - a collection of related web pages
  • Home page - starting point of a web site
  • URL - uniform resource locator
  • HTTP - hypertext transfer protocol
how a web page works
How a Web Page Works
  • Three types of hyperlinks exist
    • Target hyperlinks - links within the same page
    • Relative hyperlinks - link to another document on the same Internet computer (server)
    • Absolute hyperlinks - link to another document that could be located on a computer across the country
  • HTML - hypertext mark-up language - the code that defines what a website will look like
web browser software
Web Browser Software
  • A web browser is a program that interprets HTML and displays Web pages and allows links to other pages
  • Mosaic - developed in 1993 by Marc Andreesen, a student at the University of Illinois
  • Netscape, Internet Explorer, AOL, Safari
searching for info on the web
Searching for Info. on the Web
  • Search tools - enable users to locate information found at Web sites all over the world
  • Search engine - a type of search tool that uses keywords
  • Subject directory - a type of tool that allows the user to navigate the directories and subdirectories
multimedia on the web
Multimedia on the Web
  • Multimedia is the combination of graphics, animation, audio, video, and virtual reality
  • Graphics - were the first media used to enhance text only sites
  • Animation - is the appearance of motions created by displaying a series of still images in rapid sequence
  • Audio - you can listen to prerecorded audio clips and live audio
  • Video - consists of full motion images that are played back at various speeds
  • Virtual reality - is the simulation of a real or imagined environment
e mail
  • E-mail (electronic mail) - is the transmission of messages and files via a computer network
  • E-mail program - allows you to compose, view, send, and receive email
  • E-mail address - is a combination of a user name and a domain name
file transfer protocol
File Transfer Protocol
  • FTP - is an Internet standard that allows you to exchange files with other computers on the Internet.
  • Anonymous FTP - anyone can transfer files on this type of site.
information sharing via the web
Information Sharing via the Web
  • Newsgroup - is an online area in which users conduct written discussions about a particular subject
  • Mailing list - is a group of email addresses given a single name
  • Chat rooms - is a real-time typed conversation
  • Instant messaging - is real-time Internet communications service that notifies you when one or more people are online.
  • Netiquette - is the code of acceptable behavior while on the Internet
interesting sites
Interesting Sites