COMPUTERS IN THE CLASSROOM CT 243 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  2. CHAPTER 2Communications, Networks, the Internet, and the World Wide Web


  4. Q&A

  5. What are the two main categories of software… and how are they different? (1.13-1.14)

  6. What are the “National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers” (NETS-T), and where do they come from? (1.19-1.20)

  7. What is a “motherboard,” and what are its two main components? (1.08)

  8. What are 5 components of a computer? …and give examples of each. (1.07-1.10)

  9. What is, “the Internet,” and what are several ways it is useful for teachers? (1.17-1.18)

  10. Click on “Chapter 1” From the menu on the left, select “Integration Corner,” then “chapter 1” Scroll to any level of personal interest & explore one resource

  11. PROCESSING YOUR CLASSMATE SKETCHES • Gather by teams to regroup • Read at least 3 sketches. • Select group recorder (WP). • Process: • I really liked… • I learned to… • How do I…? • Publish???

  12. To publish or not to publish…

  13. Drawing Tablet • pressure-sensitive • designed to work with software applications that simulate real artists’ media

  14. spreadsheet

  15. ASSIGNMENT posted on blackboard & web site Web site:

  16. CHAPTER 2Communications, Networks, the Internet, and the World Wide Web

  17. Objectives • Define communications • Identify the basic components of a communications system • Describe how and why network computers are used in schools and school districts • Explain how the Internet works • Describe the World Wide Web portion of the Internet • Specify how Web documents are linked to one another • Explain the use of Web browser software • Explain how to use a Web search tool to find information • Identify several types of multimedia products available on the Web • Explain how Internet services such as e-mail, newsgroups, chat rooms, and instant messaging work • Describe how to connect to the Internet and the WWW

  18. Communications Networks • Communications - refers to the transmission of data and information between two or more computers using a communications channel such as standard telephone lines • Communications network - is a collection of computers and other equipment organized to share data, information, hardware, and software • Communications software - programs that manage the transmissions of data between computers • Communications channel - is the path the data follows as the data is transmitted from the sending equipment to the receiving equipment in a communications system.

  19. Communications Networks Continued • Transmission media - is the physical materials or other means used to establish a communications channel • Twisted-pair cable - consists of pairs of plastic-coated copper wire twisted together • Other examples (coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, microwave transmission, communications satellites, and wireless transmissions

  20. Communications Networks Continued • Digital signals - are individual electric pulses that a computer uses to represent data • Analog signals - continuous electrical wave used for telephone transmission and other devices • Modem - converts analog signals into digital signals • Network interface card (NIC) - connects computers directly to a school or business network without using a modem

  21. Types of Networks • Local area networks (LAN) - is a communications network that covers a limited geographical area such as a school, an office, a building, or a group of buildings • Wireless LAN (WLAN) - uses no wires, instead it uses wireless media, such as radio waves. • Wide area networks - covers a large geographical region and used regular telephone cables, digital lines, microwaves, wireless systems, satellites, or othercombinations of communications channels. • Home networks - if you have multiple computers in your home or home office you can create your own network

  22. History of the Internet • ARPANET - Advanced Research Projects Agency Network • allow scientists to share information • parts could function even if some of it went down • Established 1969 and by 1984 it had 1,000 hosts • In 1986 NSFnet joined together with ARPANET to serve as the backbone of the Internet • In 1995 NSF turned over responsibilities to major corporations • Internet2 - extremely high speed network that will develop and test advanced Internet technologies for research, teaching, and learning.

  23. How the Internet works • Step 1. Data is divided into small pieces, called packets. • Step 2. Packets travel over the Internet via routers. • Step 3. At the destination, the packets are reassembled into the original message. • Packet switching • TCP/IP - transmission control protocol/Internet protocol - protocol used to define packet switching

  24. ISP vs. OSP vs. WSP • Internet service provider (ISP) - allows you to connect to the internet for a fee. (ex. Netzero, ATT) • Online service provider (OSP) - allows you to connect to the internet and also provides other personalized options for a higher fee than an ISP • Wireless service provider (WSP) - allows users to connect to the internet without any wires. (ex. Palm)

  25. Ways to Connect to the Internet • Dial-up access - you use your computer and a modem to dial in to the internet. (56k) • Cable modem - you use your existing tv cable and a cable modem (20-50 x faster) • Digital subscriber line - you use digital phone lines and dsl card. (25-150 x faster)

  26. Internet Backbone • Step 1: Request a web page from your home computer • Step 2: Modem converts digital to analog • Step 3: Data travels through telephone lines to local ISP • Step 4: Data may travel through 1 or more routers • Step 5: Regional ISP uses lines, leased from a telephone company, to send data to a national ISP • Step 6: A national ISP routes data across the country to another national ISP • Step 7: Data moves from a national ISP to a local ISP to a server that contains the requested site • Step 8: The server requests the data and sends it back through the internet.

  27. Internet Addresses • The Internet uses addresses the same way the post office does. Each computer has a specific numeric address. I.e. • Domain name - the text version of a computer address • Domain abbreviations - .com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .net, .org, .k12 • Country abbreviations • Au - Australia; CA - Canada; UK - United Kingdom

  28. World Wide Web • The Web - consists of electronic documents that have built in hyperlinks to other related documents • Hyperlinks - allow users to navigate quickly from one page to another • Web page - electronic document viewed on the Web that can contain audio, video, text, etc. • Web site - a collection of related web pages • Home page - starting point of a web site • URL - uniform resource locator • HTTP - hypertext transfer protocol

  29. How a Web Page Works • Three types of hyperlinks exist • Target hyperlinks - links within the same page • Relative hyperlinks - link to another document on the same Internet computer (server) • Absolute hyperlinks - link to another document that could be located on a computer across the country • HTML - hypertext mark-up language - the code that defines what a website will look like

  30. Web Browser Software • A web browser is a program that interprets HTML and displays Web pages and allows links to other pages • Mosaic - developed in 1993 by Marc Andreesen, a student at the University of Illinois • Netscape, Internet Explorer, AOL, Safari

  31. Searching for Info. on the Web • Search tools - enable users to locate information found at Web sites all over the world • Search engine - a type of search tool that uses keywords • Subject directory - a type of tool that allows the user to navigate the directories and subdirectories

  32. Multimedia on the Web • Multimedia is the combination of graphics, animation, audio, video, and virtual reality • Graphics - were the first media used to enhance text only sites • Animation - is the appearance of motions created by displaying a series of still images in rapid sequence • Audio - you can listen to prerecorded audio clips and live audio • Video - consists of full motion images that are played back at various speeds • Virtual reality - is the simulation of a real or imagined environment

  33. E-mail • E-mail (electronic mail) - is the transmission of messages and files via a computer network • E-mail program - allows you to compose, view, send, and receive email • E-mail address - is a combination of a user name and a domain name

  34. File Transfer Protocol • FTP - is an Internet standard that allows you to exchange files with other computers on the Internet. • Anonymous FTP - anyone can transfer files on this type of site.

  35. Information Sharing via the Web • Newsgroup - is an online area in which users conduct written discussions about a particular subject • Mailing list - is a group of email addresses given a single name • Chat rooms - is a real-time typed conversation • Instant messaging - is real-time Internet communications service that notifies you when one or more people are online. • Netiquette - is the code of acceptable behavior while on the Internet

  36. Interesting Sites •