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City Making “How can you know what to try with traffic until ….”

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“How can you know what to try with traffic until ….”

“Automobiles are often conveniently tagged as the villains responsible for the ills of cities and the disappointments and futilities of city planning. But the destructive effects of automobiles are much less a cause than a symptom of our incompetence at city building.

The simple needs of automobiles are more easily understood and satisfied than the complex needs of cities, and a growing number of planners and designers have come to believe that if they can only solve the problems of traffic, they will thereby have solved the major problems of cities.

Cities have much more intricate economic and social concerns than automobile traffic. How can you know what to try with traffic until you know how the city itself works, and whatelse it needs to do with its streets? You can't.”

Jane Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities , 1961


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Traditional --Great Internal Circulation

Conventional -- Poor or no Internal Circulation







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Neighborhood

Centers, Schools


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DOWNTOWN

Freeway

Investment

moves to

Investment

moves to

SHOPPING

CENTERS

Corridor

STRIP CORRIDOR

Courtesy of Michael Freedman



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The Illustrative Plan (above) is the result of this planning process; it shows the hypothetical buildout of the corridor, locating building footprints (new

and existing), open space, and parking areas. The corridor was divided into four study areas, the Western Gateway, the Neighborhood Center, the Village Center, and the Town Center. Each area has it’s own unique characteristics and challenges which were addressed.

Quick sketches were done to study buildings that would result from the hypothetical building footprints in the Illustrative Plan, combined with the proposed height limits in the study areas and potential architectural regulations of the new code. each street, which corresponds to written code regulations.


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Pre-existing Zoning – retail permitted

Plan the corridor retail as part of a supportable city & regionalhierarchy of centers

Supportable Pattern of Centers

Pre-existing Zoning – residential permitter

Courtesy of Michael Freedman

New Pattern of Centers & Segments



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Real Centers are Walkable

$5-15/ sq ft

$25-50/ sq ft






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N

400

Roswell, Georgia

3,260 miles of roads

Hardscrabble Rd.

Houze Rd.

Hembree Rd.

Crabapple Rd.

Crossville Rd.

Alpharetta Hwy.

Woodstock Rd.

Pine Grove Rd.

Old Ala Rd.

Holcomb Bridge Rd.

Marietta Hwy.

Azalea

Riverside Rd.


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N

400

Roswell, Georgia

3,260 miles of roads

760 miles connect

Only 22% of roads are doing the heavy lifting

Hardscrabble Rd.

Houze Rd.

Hembree Rd.

Crabapple Rd.

Crossville Rd.

Alpharetta Hwy.

Woodstock Rd.

Pine Grove Rd.

Old Ala Rd.

Holcomb Bridge Rd.

Marietta Hwy.

Azalea

Riverside Rd.



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Lee Rd.

K Mart

Solana Ave.

Orlando Avenue

Winter Park

Vo Tech

Webster Ave.

Winter Park

Village

Denning Dr.


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Lee Road Extension

Mixed Use Redevelopment

Lee Rd.

K Mart

Orlando Avenue

Webster Ave.

Winter Park

Village

Residential Redevelopment

W.P.V. Development

Denning Dr.


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Infill Mixed Use

Vacant lots and under-used spaces become active centers

New and added “eyes” on our important parks, corners and principle streets.

Attractive new features and a way to pay for upgrades to our intersections

Great new convenient places to have coffee or simply hang out in a quasi public-private place




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Canada

Marine Drive, Dundarave, B.C.

Highway 93, Missoula, Montana

USA


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Narrow Lanes and Safety

"Unlike previous papers, Noland's is not a localized study or one reflecting unusual roadway types. It is specific to collectors, and it applies to all roads of this category throughout the US.

Noland states bluntly,

'as more arterial and collector lane widths are increased up to 12 ft or more, traffic fatalities and injuries increase....’

These results are quite stunning as it is general practice to 'improve' the safety of roads by increasing lane widths.‘

Evidence that showed narrowing traffic lanes reduce motorist speeds. The journal Accident Analysis and Prevention (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00014575) has this article 'In-Press.'






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Bridgeport Way, University Place, Washington

January, 2005

Dan Burden, Glatting Jackson and Walkable Communities, Inc.


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1800 vehicles

per hour

per lane

  • vehicles per hour

  • Per lane

Road Diets


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Espanola Way, circa 1986

Before and After

© Citizen Planner Institute



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Integrated Transportation Strategy

The transportation system needs to be planned as an integrated system, where all forms of transportation are taken into account when designing transportation corridors.


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Integrated Transport Strategy for Tauranga

The planning of the transportation system needs to recognize and integrate with land use planning, open space planning and urban design being undertaken

in the city.


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Healthy streets provide the best opportunity to sustain property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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Pacific Boulevard, Vancouver, B.C. property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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Road Diets property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Five to Two lane conversion


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Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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9 Feet property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida


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3 Meters property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida – Former 3-lane, One-Way

3 meter travel lanes


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6 Meters property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida – Former 3-lane, One-Way

Three meter travel lanes


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Lake Washington Boulevard property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Kirkland, Washington

ADT 21,000 (Peaked at 29,000)


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Olympia, Washington (School Crossing) – Former 4-lane property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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This: property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

One less travel lane; bike lanes; parallel to back-in diagonal parking on one side; new pavement

This 5-lane Main Street was converted to…

Pottstown PA


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34% Reduction property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Edgewater Drive: Impact of Road Diet

1 crash every 2.5 days

1 crash every 4.2 days

(146 per yr)

(87 per yr)

  • Crash Rate declined by 34 percent

  • Injury Rate declined by 68 percent


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Edgewater Drive: Impact of Road Diet property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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23% Increase property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Edgewater Drive: Impact of Road Diet


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30% Increase property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Edgewater Drive: Impact of Road Diet


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3 crash types can be reduced by going property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.from 4 to 3 lanes: 1 – rear enders

X

Designing for Pedestrian Safety – Road Diets


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3 crash types can be reduced by going property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.from 4 to 3 lanes: 2 – side swipes

X

Designing for Pedestrian Safety – Road Diets


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3 crash types can be reduced by going property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.from 4 to 3 lanes: 3 – left turn/broadside

X

Designing for Pedestrian Safety – Road Diets


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Road Diets in Seattle property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.(4 to 3 lanes)


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Benefits property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Motorist:Safety 25- 40% improvement

Traffic moves with greater uniformity

Compact intersections more efficient

Greater cost savings

Turns are easier

Senior friendly (as motorists)

Others:

Senior friendly (as pedestrians)

Supports transit, walking and bicycling

Emergency response friendly

Increased property values (and tax base)

Community economic develeopment


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Toronto, Ontario, Canada Former 4-Lane Road property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Multiple Benefits:

More green

Higher property values

Reduced crashes

More bike lanes

Lower speeds

Safer crossings

Increased beauty

Lower noise

More parking

More friendly

Lower pollution


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California Street, Mountain View, California property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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Speed reductions of 3-7 mph are common property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Hartford, Connecticut


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Security property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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Well Designed Density property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

What are the problems here?

Urban-Advantage.com

Lack of Security

Auto dependence

Lack of people

No place to buy a popsicle

Lack of investment

Lack of diversity

Lack of diversity

Lack of activity


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Safety property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


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Piikoi Street, Honolulu, HI Modified Intersection property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.

Reduced construction cost

Increased maintenance cost


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There are now roundabouts at more than 90 schools nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.


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Crossings nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.


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101 Feet nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.

La Mesa, California


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Boulder, Colorado Price: $15-25,000 nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.


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Intersections nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.


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Gridley, California: nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.State Highway 99 looking north


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Gulf Drive (State Highway) Bradenton Beach, Florida nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.


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Tauranga, NZ nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.


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The Gift of Density nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.

Low

Moderate


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Significant reduction in VMT as we go from 3-4 units/acre to over 20 units/acre

Land Use Pattern Affects Travel Higher Density can reduce Vehicle Trips

7-10 du/a

Vehicle Trips

2-3 du/a

20 du/a

Walking Trips

11-18 du/a

6-7 du/a

Source: John Holtzclaw, PhD, Sierra Club


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Vancouver now has so much density that there is no comparison until you travel to Asia … to Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo.

Virtually all growth occurred in brown fields, industrial yards, old rail yards. Virtually all former single family homes are still in place. Loved, cared for, and worth a heck of a lot of money.

As Vancouver has built itself into the one city in the “Most Livable City in the World” …Vehicle Miles Per Day (VPD) is declining. Registered car ownership is also declining.


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8-10 du/a net comparison until you travel to Asia … to Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo.

11-12 du/a net


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Land Value comparison until you travel to Asia … to Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo.(Mixed Use $25-35/ sq foot)


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Walk Audit comparison until you travel to Asia … to Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo.


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