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American Government and Politics Today PowerPoint Presentation
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American Government and Politics Today

American Government and Politics Today

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American Government and Politics Today

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  1. American Government and Politics Today Chapter 8 Political Parties

  2. What is a Political Party? • Definition: a group of political activists who organize to win elections, to operate the government, and to determine public policy. • Parties versus interest groups • Functions of parties • Recruiting candidates to run for elective offices at all levels of government • Mobilize citizens to vote and participate in elections • Bear the responsibility of operating government at all levels • Providing organized opposition to the party in power is an essential role for a party that does not control one or another branch of the government.

  3. History of Political Parties • The Formative Years: Federalists and Anti-Federalists • The Era of Good Feelings • National Two-Party Rule: Whigs and Democrats • The Civil War Crisis • The Post-Civil War Period • “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion” • The Triumph of the Republicans • The Progressive Interlude • The New Deal Era • An Era of Divided Government • In the years after 1968, the general pattern was often a Republican president and a Democratic Congress. • 2000 Presidential Election (Red state-blue state)

  4. Election 1896

  5. Election 2000

  6. Election 2004

  7. The Two Major Parties Today • The parties’ core constituents • Economic beliefs • Recent economic convergence? • Republican and Democratic Budgets • Democrats have the reputation of supporting the less-well-off, and Republicans the prosperous. • Cultural Politics • Cultural Politics and Socioeconomic Status • The Regional Factor in Cultural Politics • The 2004 Election: Economics and National Security

  8. Fig. 8-4 Republican Issues and Democratic Issues

  9. The Three Faces of a Party 1-The people who identify with the party or who regularly vote for the candidates of the party in general elections 2-Party organization • National • Convention delegates • National Committee • National Chairperson

  10. Three Faces of a Party (cont.) • State party organization • Local (grass roots) organization • Patronage and City Machines • Local Party Organizations Today • 3-The Party in Government • Divided Government • The Limits of Party Unity • Party Polarization

  11. Why Has the Two Party System Endured? • Often, on major issues confronting the country there have been two clear sides. This duality helped to initiate a two-party system and has maintained this system through the present. • Political socialization and practical considerations • The Winner-Take-All Electoral System • Presidential Voting • Popular Election of the Governors and President • Proportional Representation • State and Federal Laws Favoring the Two Parties

  12. The Role of Minor Parties in U.S. Politics • Ideological Third Parties • Splinter Parties • The Impact of Minor Parties • Influencing the Major Parties • Affecting the Outcome of an Election

  13. Mechanisms of Political Change • Realignment: a process in which a substantial group of voters switches party allegiance, producing a long-term change in the political landscape. • The Myth of Dominance • The Myth of Predictability • Is Realignment Still Possible? • Dealignment: a major drop-off in support for the parties. • Independent Voters • Not-So-Independent Voters • Tipping

  14. Fig. 8-5 Party Identification: 1937-Present

  15. The Most Successful Third Party Campaigns Since 1864