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CBSS Presentation on Civil Security Copenhagen 3 February 2010. Dr Christer Pursiainen Senior Adviser CBSS Secretariat christer.pursiainen@cbss.org. Discussing some conceptual issues related to ”civil security”

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Aim of the presentation

CBSS Presentation on Civil Security

Copenhagen 3 February 2010

Dr Christer Pursiainen

Senior Adviser

CBSS Secretariat

christer.pursiainen@cbss.org


Aim of the presentation

Discussing some conceptual issues related to ”civil security”

Presenting the issues that the CBSS is working with within the civil security priority

law inforcement

social dimensions of civil security

civil protection and nuclear safety

Aim of the presentation


Civil security trends

Since the 1970s the concept of security has been ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats

The issues at stake:

What is a non-military/civil ”security” threat?

Who is the object of the threat?

Who should do what?

The answers have varied greatly since the 1970s

Each period is profoundly affected by some dramatic events

Civil Security ”trends”


Civil security trends1

1970s: trends and themes ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats

The main ”background” event/trend:

the 1973 oil crisis

Third World poverty a major theme through the media

non-military security threats (energy supply, global poverty) becoming a security theme

academic/UN discourses on the ”non-stateness” of security

the objects of the threat are not only states but the ”international society”, moving the focus from ”national security” to ”global security”

Civil Security ”trends”


Civil security trends2

1980s: trends and themes ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats

major ”background” events:

Three Mile Island (Harrisburg) NPP accident 1979 and, finally, Chernobyl 1986

Several major oil spills

environmental pollution, nuclear safety, becoming permanent security issues

at the end of the decade, the ”human security” discourse

not the state but a society or an individual is the object of protection

Civil Security ”trends”


Civil security trends3

1990s: trends and themes ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats

major ”background” events:

the end of the Cold War 1989-1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union 1991

the ”human security” discourse reaching its apex

defining the goal of security as ”a good life”

the state is not the only provider of security, the role of non-state actors as security providers, empowering the people

Civil Security ”trends”


Civil security trends4

1990s: trends and themes (cont.) ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats

towards the end of decade: the ”new security” threats, soft security vs. hard security discourses

environment, nuclear safety, communicable diseases, illegal migration, cross-border crime, corruption main themes

the discourse that international/transnational cooperation needed for ”cross-border threats”

the ”securitisation” discourse as a counter/analytical reaction to the ”enlargement” of security

Civil Security ”trends”


Civil security trends5

2000s: trends and themes ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats

major ”background” events/trends:

9/11 2001, Madrid 2004 and London 2005 terrorist attacks

Tsunami 2004

Hurricane Katrina 2005

IPCC reports: AR3 (2001) and AR4 (2007)

pandemics (bird flue etc.)

terrorism, climate change, large-scale natural disasters, pandemics as major global threats, with ”terrorism as a priority” focus

Civil Security ”trends”


Civil security trends6

2000s: trends and themes (cont.) ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats

pollution, illegal migration, organised crime as major regional or cross-border threats

the borderline between ”safety” and ”security” becoming overlapping or more obscure, ”crisis management” becoming a central theme for ”safecurity”

protecting ”vital societal functions” and ”critical infrastructures”

Civil Security ”trends”


Civil security trends7

2010: trends and themes ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats?

Major ”background” events/trends?

The first ”background” event: Haiti 2010

Radiological terrorism?

Man-made, technological, natural disasters?

Pandemics?

IPCC AR5, climate change –related crises

From ”terrorism as a priority” to ”all-hazard” approach?

From ”protection” to ”resilience”?

From international civil security cooperation towards civil security (EU/regional) integration?

Civil Security ”trends”


Five cbss priority areas

Environment ”enlarged” or ”enwidened” to non-military (civil) threats

Economic Development

Energy

Education and Culture

Civil Security & Human Dimension

The work takes place in expert structures

Duplication with other existing bodies is avoided, or if working in the same field, synergy is created

Five CBSS priority areas


Cbss civil security

CBSS Expert Groups + more independent expert structures within the ”CBSS family”

Law enforcement networks

”Social dimension” networks of civil security

Civil protection and Nuclear Safety networks

CBSS Civil Security


Cbss civil security1

Law enforcement: within the ”CBSS family”

Baltic Sea Region Border Control Cooperation

Border guards, increasingly the customs and police, Frontex and DG Mare the closest EU partners

Regular ’summits’, meetings, training, joint concrete operations

Main issues: illegal immigration, druck smuggling, trafficking in stolen goods, trafficking in human beings, identifying forged documents etc.

Baltic Sea States’ Prosecutors General Network

State Prosecutors’ annual meeting, Eurojust from the EU

Working group on environmental crimes

Main issues: joint investigation teams, cross-border cooperation in legal affairs (information change, manuals etc.

CBSS Civil Security


Cbss civil security2

Law enforcement (cont.): within the ”CBSS family”

Baltic Sea Task Force on Organised Crime

Operatic Committee meetings and BSTF-OC Annual Meeting

Some projects but concrete operational cooperation is fading out as Europol-Russia cooperation develops

CBSS Senior Official Group on Tax (Crime) Cooperation

Meetings 1-3 per year

Cross-border tax fraud and tax avoidance (e.g. related to labour hiring, trade etc.)

CBSS Expert Group on Customs and Border Crossing Aspects

Some civil security aspects (goods instead of people) but mainly economic cooperation in order to enhance border crossing

CBSS Civil Security


Cbss civil security3

”Social dimension” of civil security within the ”CBSS family”

CBSS Expert Group on Children at Risk

main issues: child trafficking, child sexual abuse and exploitation, children as perpetrators etc.

education, training, surveys

CBSS Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings

trafficking in adults

Large (often UN supported) projects on education of consular staff, law enforcement authorities, support networks,

CBSS Civil Security


Cbss civil security4

Civil protection and Nuclear Safety within the ”CBSS family”

Baltic Sea States’ Civil Protection Network

Annual (Rescue) Directors General and senior expert meetings, some project cooperation

Main issues: public safety, floods, storms, critical infrastructures, accidents, prevention etc.

CBSS Expert Group on Nuclear and Radiation Safety

Regular meeting, exchange of monitoring data (every 10 minutes), harmonisation, training, laboratory cooperation,

Competent euthorities from the CBSS and Observer States, DG TREN from the EU

Main issues: all nuclear and radiation safety issues, including NPPs, environmental radiation and radiological terrorism

CBSS Civil Security


Aim of the presentation

Thank you for your attention! within the ”CBSS family”

For more information, please contact:

christer.pursiainen@cbss.org

or consult:

www.cbss.org