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Adult Stem Cells as Regenerative Medicine. Kanika Varma 1 , Parul Rewari 1, Jayanti Tokas 1 , Rubina Begum 1 , Shalini Jain 2 and Hariom Yadav 2 1 Department of Biotechnology, JMIT, Radaur, Haryana, India 2 NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

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adult stem cells as regenerative medicine

Adult Stem Cells as Regenerative Medicine

Kanika Varma1, Parul Rewari1, Jayanti Tokas1, Rubina Begum1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom Yadav2

1Department of Biotechnology, JMIT, Radaur, Haryana, India

2NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Email: yadavhariom@gmail.com

adult stem cell
Adult Stem Cell
  • Undifferentiated Cells
  • Found throughout the body after embryonic development
  • Multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells
  • Regenerate Damaged Tissues.
types of adult stem cells
Hematopoietic

Mammary

Mesenchymal

Neural

Endothelial

Olfactory

Neural crest

Testicular

Types of Adult Stem Cells
properties
Properties
  • Defining properties- self-renewal & potency
  • Lineage
  • Signaling pathways
  • Multidrug resistance
  • Plasticity / Transdifferentiation
location of adult stem cell
Location of Adult Stem Cell
  • Identified in many organs and tissues -

Brain, Bone marrow , Peripheral blood, Blood vessels, Skeletal muscle, Skin, Teeth, Heart, Gut, Liver, Ovarian epithelium and Testis

  • Thought to reside in a specific area of each tissue - a ‘stem cell niche’
plasticity
Plasticity
  • Basis for generating tissue for transplantation
  • Differentiate into cell types in organs / tissues other than those expected from the cells predicted lineage
stem cells in the bone marrow and blood
Stem Cells in the Bone Marrow and Blood
  • Three types of stem cell originate in bone marrow:
    • Hematopoietic Stem Cell
    • Stromal Cells
    • Endothelial Progenitor Cells
in other tissues
In Other Tissues
  • Endothelial Progenitor Cells
  • Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells
  • Epithelial Cell Precursors in the Skin and Digestive System
  • Stem Cells in the Pancreas and Liver
hematopoietic and stromal adult stem cell differentiation
Hematopoietic and Stromal Adult Stem Cell Differentiation

stemcells.nih.gov/.../images/figure2_lg.jpg

adult stem cell therapies
Adult Stem Cell Therapies
  • The therapies require a stem cell source of the specific lineage and harvesting or culturing them up to the numbers required is a challenge.
regenerative medicine
Regenerative Medicine
  • Process of creating living, functional tissues to repair or replace tissue or organ function lost due to age, disease, damage, or congenital defects
  • It helps to produce extended healthy longevity,
treating leukemia
Treating Leukemia
  • Leukemia results when white blood cells made in bone marrow begin to grow and function abnormally
  • One way to do this is through chemotherapy
  • When chemotherapy cannot solve the problem, doctors turn to bone marrow transplants.
another stem cell victory parkinson s disease
Another Stem Cell Victory - Parkinson's Disease
  • A degenerative disorder of the central nervous system
  • Sufferers lack a sufficient amount of a brain chemical called dopamine
  • The cure of this disease is to multiply cells that release dopamine
insulin independence
Insulin Independence
  • There is insulin independence for Type 1 diabetes patients
  • A study showed patients receiving injections with adult stem cells were able to go as long as four years without having to rely on insulin shots.
heeling of heart by adult stem cells
Heeling of Heart by Adult Stem Cells
  • Cardiologists and heart surgeons worldwide currently use VesCell™ adult stem cell therapy to treat patients suffering from coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and congestive heart failure.
process of stem cells for spinal cord injury
Process of stem cells for spinal cord injury
  • Bone Marrow taken from the hip 6 weeks of cultivating the adult stem cells to increase total to 100 million.
  • Adult Stem Cells injected at injury site (C3-C4) in a surgical procedure
thalesemia
Thalesemia
  • The genetic defect results in reduced rate of synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative approach
curing cancer
Curing cancer
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample
  • Lisa Ray to undergo stem cell transplant for blood cancer
benefits of adult stem cell research
Benefits of Adult Stem Cell Research
  • Easy to obtain
  • Potentially limitless in supply
  • Patients can use their own stem cells for treatment and therapy
  • Adult stem cells are politically neutral
  • Not offensive to any major interest group nor do they generate controversy.
limitations of adult stem cell
Limitations of adult stem cell
  • The isolation of some types of ASC, for example the isolation of neural cells from a patient's brain, would be impractical
  • Where a person suffers from a genetic disorder or some types of cancers, ASC isolated from that individual will retain the damaging genetic alterations underlying the disease and so be of little therapeutic value
  • Unambiguous identification is difficult
  • Maintenance in culture is difficult
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Adult stem cell research is complicated and rapidly changing .Today’s medicine generally tries to support or treat injured tissues and organs, but stem cells may someday simply replace them.