What is the man doing? He is taking an HSK examination. HSK是「汉语水平考试（Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi）」的缩写。原是鉴定在大陆的外国留学生汉语程度，但后来随著「中国热」兴起，已经成为全球汉语鉴定界的「中文托福」。
陶渊明在他的一首诗中写道：“采菊东篱下， 悠然见南山。”我们从诗中可以得知什么？ • 陶渊明在东边的篱笆下采菊。 B. 陶渊明官场失意。 C. 陶渊明是残废，明明在东边采菊，而见到的却是南边的山。 D. 陶渊明具有辨别方向的能力
Explanations 这是一道细节理解题： A. 是错的，因为这是在照抄原文。 B. 是错的，这动用了你对陶渊明认识上的常识。如果此题换成别人，就不一定了。 C. 是错的，属于过度推断。 D. 是正确答案。陶渊明可以知晓东边和南边，所以具有辨别方向的能力。
The Details Determine the Destiny ---“细节”决定命运
题干语义转换 eg:（07年湖南卷） The Win-Cube program is mainly aimed at inspiring a strong desire for discovery on the part of the students. It also shows Manitoba’s devotion to research and innovation and the development of a skilled workforce—all important drivers of knowledge-based economic growth. 58. The primary purpose of the project is to _________. A. find the early signs of earthquakes B. relate studies to practical C. help high school students study real-world engineering D. inspire a strong desire for discovery among the students
选项语义转换 eg1:（2008年湖南卷） …the structure had been abandoned years earlier and the roof of the main building had fallen down. But the price was right, so Yocum bought it. 61. Yocum bought the old building because__ A. it was a bargain to him. B. is was still in good condition. C. it was located in the city center. D. it looked attractive from the outside.
选项语义转换 eg2:(2006年湖南卷) Occasionally, coyotes(丛林狼） might attack human beings. There have been about 160 attacks on people in recent years. Therefore, people have been consistently told not to feed coyotes or leave pet food unsecured. That, plus a large trapping program in the neighborhood, has cut down on the coyote population. 66．According to the passage, to cut down on the coyote population, people are advised to. A．leave pet food secured B．keep coyotes in small regions C．force coyotes to live alone D．avoid using trapping programs
I. 类型 1.直接理解题 2. 语义转换题 题干 选项
二、 主要特点及典型陷阱题 1. 对应性：此类题的正确答案应与文中的细节一一对应，而不能是在未经查阅找到细节点的出处时，就冒然依照自己的理解答题，也不能在细节对应还模糊不清的时候，就一锤定音. 2.准确性：此类题更多地倾向于将题目中的信息与原文有关细节信息进行语义上的转换，在转换过程中，考生易犯的错误是未注意到转换的准确性 . 3.区分性：有时命题人会故意利用一些貌合神离的手段,比如给出与原文中一模一样的字眼来迷惑考生，让考生不加思索地选定答案，而实际上选项中的字眼与文中的相同字眼压根就不是对应同一事情。
Trap One: 答非所问 eg 1:（2008年江西卷） Most people, when they travel to space, would like to stay in orbit for a few days or more. And this stands to reason, if you’re paying $20,000 for your trip to orbit! So in order for tourism to reach its full potential there’s going to be a need for orbital accommodation---or space hotels. What would a space hotel actually be like to visit? 72．When traveling in space, most people would like to stay in orbit for a few days because _______. A．it is expensive to travel in space B．they would find the possible life in other star systems C．they could enjoy the luxury of space hotels D．they want to realize the full potential of tourism
Trap One: 答非所问 陷阱特色： 文中出现相应信息点，但却与 题干要求不符。 解决方案： 紧扣题干，定位查找
Trap Two 偷梁换柱 eg 1:（2008年江西卷） According to the legend, anyone attempting to catch a unicorn（独角兽） had to be extremely cautious as it has a reputation for being very fierce. A clever trick suggested by unicorn-trappers, in order to catch this magnificent beast without being hurt by its horn, was for the hunter to stand in front of a tree and then to move quickly behind it as the unicorn charged．Hopefully, the creature could then be captured when its horn was stuck in the tree. 57．To catch a unicorn, the unicorn-trappers had to try all of the following EXCEPT ____. A．tempting the unicorn to attack B．making use of the tree as a protection C．hiding quickly behind the unicorn D．having the unicorn horn stuck in the tree
eg 2： 2006年湖南卷 Trap Two 偷梁换柱 One of its most obvious characters is its smartness, which has made the animal a notorious(臭名照著的)pest. Hunters trapped, shot and poisoned more than a million coyotes in the 1900s. … Yet the coyote (丛林狼） has survived. How has the coyote shown this extraordinary ability? “I guess if you wanted to use one word, it’d be ‘plasticity’,” says Eric Gese. Coyotes can live alone, in pairs, or in large packs like wolves; occupy a small region or an area up to 40 square miles; and live on all sorts of food, from lizards（蜥蜴) and shoes, to ants and melons. 63．The coyote is “plasticity” refers to its . A．ability to fit the environment B．notorious smartness C．hunting ability D．being human-tolerant
eg 3: 联考卷 Trap Two 偷梁换柱 More schools are being designed and used in ways that are friendly to the environment…..The newly renovated Sidewell Friends School in the District has been awarded the highest rating for the U.S. Green council for having a positive impact on the environment– a rare honor…..The recycled water from sinks and toilets, which can’t be used for drinking, will be colored blue…. Water fountain will still use fresh city water…..In fact, a study done in Washington State showed that students at green schools performed better and were absent less. 60. From the text we learn that green schools ___. A. not only benefit the environment but also been awarded the highest rating. B. contribute both to the environment and to students development. C. treat and recycled water from sinks, toilets and water fountain. D. make more use of solar power and save more electricity than the older schools.
Trap Two 偷梁换柱 陷阱特色：细节信息中的地点，时间，方式，程度 (副词)，性质 (如形容词)，范围、语义 色彩等改变，甚至主语和谓语都可能被 偷换掉。 解决方案： 逐一对比 细心求证
Trap Three 常识错位 eg 1: 联考卷 …. Actually, the need for such protection was realized centuries ago. About 300 years B.C., an Indian writer descried forests that were somewhat like national parks today…. 68. This report says that the need for protecting wildlife ___. A. was understood centuries before this time. B. was described by an Indian writer about 2300 years ago. C. is met in many countries today. D. is carried out in forests as well as in national parks.
Trap Three 常识错位 陷阱特色：干扰项是一些基本常识和我们对 社会、生活等方面一些问题的一 般看法和认识，虽然符合客观现 实，但并非文章所提及的或侧重的。 解决方案： 避免先入为主 重视原文验证
Trap Four 无中生有 eg: 2006年湖南卷 The coyote(丛林狼) originally lived in the middle of the continent…. Unbelievably people helped coyotes increase when they killed most of the wolves in the United States. The spreading of coyotes into city areas, though, is recent. They travel at night, crossing sidewalks and bridges, running along roads and ducking into culverts (钻入涵洞) and underpasses. No one knows why coyotes are moving into cities, but experts explain that cleverer, more human- tolerant(不怕人的) coyotes are teaching urban survival skills to new generations. 65．According to the passage, coyotes. A．originally lived in the west of the continent B．sleep during the day but look for food at night C．are teaching survival skills to their younger generations D．suffered a population decrease because people killed wolves
Trap Four 无中生有 陷阱特色：凭空捏造原文不存在的细节，以 迷惑和干扰考生，制造的假象让 考生怀疑自己是否漏读了原文的 相关信息. 解决方案： 准确定位 避免偏离
三、细节题解题步骤 浏览题干，预测文章内容。 略读原文，掌握其中心或主旨。 快速通篇跳读，注意每段的首句及关联词，直到找到细节出处，待找到含细节句子时，就要放慢速度，仔细核对比较内容，直至找到答案。 细节题不要跟着感觉走！ 不能只凭一个单词的印象就选择答案！ 必须去原文核实选项的每一个成分！
Challenge Yourself 1.Stephen’s book astonished the world because_________ A. it was the first time people heard about Mayas. B. the Mayas were excellent builders and farmers. C. he had experienced so many difficulties to find this lost civilization. D. it described that the Mayas used to be an advanced civilization.
Challenge Yourself 2.One of the most surprising findings about Mayas was that________ A. they developed accurate system measuring time. B. they knew how to build pyramids with stones. C. they deserted their cities and moved to new ones. D. they built cities which they never lived in.
Challenge Yourself 3. At last Mayas disappeared from the world most probably in_______. A. a thousand years before 1841 B. around AD 900 C. any year between 1200 and 1517 D. 1200
Challenge Yourself 4.What brought about Mayan sudden collapse？ A. Tropical germs and disease B. European conquest C. Mysterious force from outer space D. No one knows for sure
In 1841，a book was published which astonished the world. It was called “Incidents of Travel in Central America，Chiapas and Yucatan”. The author John Loud Stephens had just returned from a long， difficult and dangerous journey through the thick rain forest of southern Mexico and Guatemala. He had once been there with Frederick Catherwood，an architect and artist，to search for the remains of a lost civilization known as the Mayas(玛雅).Very little was known about the Mayas at that time，but Catherwood‘s drawing in the book showed incredible cities with temples，pyramids and other buildings as impressive as those of their northern neighbors，the Aztecs.These cities， however，were deserted.The inhabitants(居民) had disappeared almost a thousand years before. Since that time，far more has been learned about this remarkable civilization. The Mayas had a highly developed system of government and agriculture，as well as an incredibly accurate(精确) system of measuring time.They were
also wonderful engineers capable of moving huge blocks stone long distance and cutting them to accurate shapes and sizes. And yet although the Mayas knew about the wheel，they never used it. Neither did they use metals other than copper. What is ever more surprising is that they suddenly abandoned(抛弃) many of the cities and built new ones in the jungle. Some time around AD900，Mayan civilization collapsed. By the year 1200，their last great capital，Chichen Itza，was deserted. Who were these strange people and the even stranger gods they worshipped？What brought about their sudden and mysterious colapse？ Some writers have tried to prove that the Mayas had contact with visitors from space and even that they themselves came from another planet.Some people believe that their civilization came to an end because the Mayas never developed a proper resistance to local germs and diseases. All we realy know is that when the first Europeans appeared off their coast in 1517，this great and mysterious culture was only a memory.