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L 9. TRANSPORT SAFETY, SOURCE SECURITY & DEALING WITH WASTE. Answer True or False. Source accounting records will contain source-specific information (radionuclide identity and activity), and will include all information regarding movement of the material, from production to disposal

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slide1

L 9

TRANSPORT SAFETY, SOURCE SECURITY & DEALING WITH WASTE

answer true or false
Answer True or False
  • Source accounting records will contain source-specific information (radionuclide identity and activity), and will include all information regarding movement of the material, from production to disposal
  • The manner in which radioactive waste is stored and disposed of will take account of the condition of the source and its origin (e.g., clinical waste, cyclotron waste, etc.), and will be performed in accordance with national regulations

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

objective
Objective

To consider aspects of a PET/CT facility: transport of the radionuclide, accounting, security of sources and waste management at the facility

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

content
Content
  • Transport
  • Accounting
  • Source security
  • Waste
    • Cyclotron
    • PET/CT unit

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

transport case

Liner

Lead container

Source

Transport Case

Container

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

slide7

For return to supplier

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

transport index ti
Transport Index (TI)

1.0 m

TI = max dose-rate at 1.0m (Sv/h)

10

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

white i label
White-I Label
  • < 5.0 Sv/h at surface
  • < 0.05 Sv/h at 1.0 m
  • TI = 0

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

yellow ii label
Yellow-II Label
  • < 500 Sv/h, > 5 Sv/h at surface
  • < 10 Sv/h at 1.0 m
  • 0 < TI < 1.0

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

yellow iii label
Yellow-III Label
  • > 500 Sv/h,< 2000Sv/h at surface
  • > 10Sv/h, < 100Sv/h at 1.0m
  • 1.0 < TI < 10

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

vehicle placards
Vehicle Placards

3 placards on vehicle

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

consignor s responsibilities
Consignor’s Responsibilities

All labelling and placarding

Provision of transport documents

Provision of local rules and any other relevant information

Driver training

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

accountability of sources
Accountability of Sources

Receipt, storage, use and all movements of a source must be recorded

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

accountability of sources1
Accountability of Sources

Source accountancy records should contain:

  • radionuclide and activity of sources,
  • location and description of sources,
  • disposal details

The records should be updated regularly, and the location of the sources checked

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

ordering and receipt
Ordering and Receipt
  • Protocols should specify
  • Persons authorized to order radionuclides
  • Routines for delivering radioactive material to the department
  • Routines for checking and unpacking of shipment
  • Routines in case of damaged package
  • Routines for check of radionuclide and activity
  • Which records must be kept

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

typical quantities
Typical Quantities
  • For 10 patients:
  • 50GBq for single daily delivery
  • 10GBq for 2 deliveries per day

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

security of sources bss
Security of Sources (BSS)

2.34: “Sources shall be kept secure so as to prevent theft or damage and to prevent any unauthorized legal person from carrying out any of the actions specified in the General Obligations for practices of the Standards (see para’s 2.7-2.9)”

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

security of sources
Security of Sources

The security of sources shall be taken into account in the different steps of the lifetime of a source in a facility

Receipt

Storage before use

Transport (in house)

Storage of waste

Use

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

storage of radionuclides

Line sources

Routine use

Calibration source, radioactive waste

Storage of Radionuclides

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

source storage
Source Storage

Source stores must:

  • provide protection against environmental conditions
  • be only for radioactive materials
  • provide sufficient shielding
  • be resistant to fire
  • be secure
  • have a radiation warning sign

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

sealed sources
Sealed Sources
  • Inventory of sealed sources
  • Disposal should be considered when replacement purchased and financial/practical provision arranged
  • Authorization to store sources
  • Leak test
  • Security of sources

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

radioactive waste bss
Radioactive Waste (BSS)

“III.8. Registrants and licensees shall:

(a) ensure that the activity and volume of any radioactive waste that results from the sources for which they are responsible be kept to the minimum practicable, and that the waste be managed, i.e. collected, handled, treated, conditioned, transported, stored and disposed of, in accordance with the requirements of the Standards and any other applicable standard [26]; and …”

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

radioactive waste bss1
Radioactive Waste (BSS)

“III.8. Registrants and licensees shall:

(b) …segregate, and treat separately if appropriate, different types of radioactive waste where warranted by differences in factors such as radionuclide content, half-life, concentration, volume and physical and chemical properties, taking into account the available options for waste disposal.”

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

radioactive waste
Radioactive Waste

Radioactive waste should be handled, stored and disposed of according to local procedures that are based on national regulations

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

practical means of dealing with radioactive waste
Practical Means of Dealing with Radioactive Waste
  • Report on accumulation and disposal of radioactive substances
  • Review of practices to ensure minimum volume and activity of waste produced and released into environment
  • Aqueous waste from patients – drain likely to be best option
  • Aqueous waste from unused stock – decay to inactive likely to be best option
  • Solid waste – decay storage again likely to be best option

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

waste from cyclotron
Waste from Cyclotron

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

solid waste pet ct unit
Solid Waste - PET/CT Unit
  • Cover papers, gloves, empty vials and syringes
  • Separate bins for active and inactive waste
  • Store for 24 hours in shielded area before disposal as inactive waste
  • Waste should be labelled with date and radionuclide
  • Contaminated linen must be stored for 24 hours before removal to laundry
  • Maintain records

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

liquid waste pet ct unit
Liquid Waste - PET/CT Unit
  • Patient excreta
  • Separate patient toilet
  • Calculate on monthly basis to ensure authorization not exceeded
  • 30% of injected activity to drain (UK)

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

summary of transport safety source security dealing with waste
SUMMARY OF TRANSPORT SAFETY, SOURCE SECURITY & DEALING WITH WASTE
  • Transportation is performed according to the categorized level of the source
  • All sources must be accounted for, and their receipt, storage, security and movements all must be documented
  • Radioactive waste must be handled, stored and disposed of depending on the type of source (liquid, solid, aseptic, patient discharge, cyclotron waste) in compliance with local procedures based on national regulations

Radiation Protection in PET/CT