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Equipment Efficiency: Availability, Q uality and SMED. Operations Analysis and Improvement 2010 Fall Dr. Tai-Yue Wang Industrial and Information Management Department National Cheng Kung University. Presentation.

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equipment efficiency availability q uality and smed

Equipment Efficiency:Availability, Qualityand SMED

Operations Analysis and Improvement

2010 Fall

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang

Industrial and Information Management Department

National Cheng Kung University

presentation
Presentation
  • It has become increasingly important to economically manufacture products in smaller product batches.
    • Product lead times must be kept as small as possible.
    • Product customization continues to increase.
      • Number of parts produced on manufacturing systems continues to increase
        • Batch sizes have been reduced.
presentation1
Presentation
  • Companies should be as agile and flexible as possible.
    • Reduce machine set-up time times to minutes instead of days or hours.
  • The Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) is a clear easy-to-apply methodology.
    • Good results in many cases very quickly.
    • It was developed by Shigeo Shingo in Japan from 1950-80s.
    • Achieve good results without costly investments.
introduction
Introduction
  • Set-up process.
    • Time required to go from the end of the last good part from one batch to when the first good part of the following batch is produced.
      • The trials needed to obtain the first good product are considered part of the set-up process.
introduction1
Introduction
  • SMED -> Single-Minute Exchange of Die.
    • Designed so that the set-up process should be made in less than 10 minutes.
      • During the 1960s the set-up time for a large stamping press could take more than a full day.
        • It is possible to achieve reductions around 60% of the original set-up time.
        • In reductions of about 90% the project costs become significant.
  • It is not always necessary to reduce the machine set-up process.
    • Tires on your personal vehicle vs. car racing.
introduction2

Thinking

revolution

The 5S

Visual Control

Workforce optimization

Standard

operations

Poka-Yoke

Jidoka

TPM

One-Piece

flow

Multi-

functional

workers

Leveling

Production

Kanban

SMED

1

20

11

12

9

7

16

JUST IN TIME

5

14

4

6

17

8

15

18

19

13

10

3

2

Introduction
  • SMED is contemplated in the Just-in-time and in the 20 keys methodologies (key number 5).
  • SMED improves the availability rate as well as the quality rate.
    • This set-up time includes the trial phase.
      • Startup losses included in the quality rate are produced in this trial phase
basic steps in a set up process
Basic steps in a set-up process
  • Four typical classes of set-up operations regardless the type of the machine or equipment.
    • Prepare, adjust and check (new materials and tools).
    • Remove old tooling and install new tooling on the machine.
    • Measure, set and calibrate (fixtures, tools and tooling).
    • Produce initial parts (production trials) and adjust the machine..
basic steps in a set up process1
Basic steps in a set-up process
  • Prepare, adjust and check operations focus on making sure that the tools and materials that will be used for set-up are available when the set-up is scheduled.
  • Produce initial parts and adjust depends on the set-up specialist’s know-how.
traditional strategies
Traditional strategies
  • For high volume manufacturing applications, the set-up process duration was not particularly important.
    • Manufactures could afford to have customers waiting.
    • Production was scheduled based on manufacturing needs.
      • These set-ups hardly affected the product’s price.
      • Shutdown production facility to for two weeks while machines and tools were set-up for new model year production.
  • Today, manufacturing lot sizes have decreased.
    • Manufacturing flexibility needs to increase.
      • Same quantity -> increased part variety and with smaller delivery quantities.
traditional strategies1
Traditional strategies
  • The possible production of defective parts at set-up coupled with the increased frequency of set-up has forced manufacturers to make more products than required.
  • In order to reduce set-up process affects, companies usually use two different strategies.
    • Try to make the set-up as fast as possible.
    • Increase the production lot size.
skilled based strategies
Skilled based strategies
  • Many companies have used set-up specialists to reduce changeover and set-up times.
    • Skilled in the operation of specific machines.
    • Familiar with the needed tools and methods to carry out the exchange.
skilled based strategies1
Skilled based strategies
  • Dependence on these specialists can be strong.
    • Skill that a set-up specialist needs.
    • Set-up process complexity.
  • Not all the tasks that set-up specialists carry out are critical.
    • The specialist can get help from the machine operator.
large batches based strategies
Large batches based strategies
  • The larger the batch size is, the smaller the impact of the set-up time will be on the production cost of each part.
    • Cost per part is based on the company cost system.
      • The system shares all company costs to each product.
      • There is a section that depends on the time to manufacture and also on its respective set-up time.
  • If the lot size is large, the set-up time effect is spread out more than if the lot size is small.
large batches based strategies1
Large batches based strategies
  • The higher the set-up time, the bigger the profit will be.
    • This reasoning supports the lot size increasing.
    • Some companies only accept orders that exceed certain lot sizes.
large batches based strategies2
Large batches based strategies
  • If set-up time and production time were about the same magnitude…

… it would not make sense to search for large lots size.

economic lot size strategy
Economic Lot Size strategy
  • Large set-up times -> large batch size.
    • Increase in inventory cost and potential loss for products becoming obsolete.
  • The economic lot size is a direct relationship between the inventory cost and the set-up cost.
    • The effect of the set-up cost decreases exponentially according to the increase of the batch size.
      • This hypothesis is based on a constant set-up time.
economic lot size strategy1

set-up

costs

Batch size

Economic Lot Size strategy
  • As set-up cost decreases, the economic lot size would also decrease until reaching the unit product lot size.
  • It would be profitable to only accept orders made up of one article – a batch size of one!
smed methodology
SMED methodology
  • 1950 in Toyo Kogyo factory.
    • Shingo discovered that the exchange of an 800 ton press was delayed because of a missing screw.
    • Two types of operations in the process of change.
      • Those that should be carried out with the machine running producing parts from the previous lot.
        • Shingo called these activities External set-up.
      • Those that required the machine and for it to be idle while they were performed.
        • Shingo denoted as Internal set-up.
smed methodology1
SMED methodology
  • In 1957 Shingo improved the SMED methodology.
    • Placing an extra table in a Mitsubishi Company machine.
      • Convert some of the internal set-up tasks to external set-up operations.
  • Shingo reduced the set-up time for a screw machine manufacturer from 8 hours to 58 seconds.
    • At the Mitsubishi Company from 24 hours to 2 minutes and 40 seconds.
preliminary stage
Preliminary stage
  • Studying the current set-up process because simply put “what is unknown cannot be improved”.
    • Know the process, the variability and the cause(s) that produce this variability.
  • Collect values for the set-up times.
    • set-ups can be frequent or sporadic.
    • By means of the time study process.
preliminary stage1
Preliminary stage
  • the SMED’s goal is not to eliminate specialists’ job.
    • set-up specialist opposition can lead to project failure.
separating internal and external set up
Separating internal and external set-up
  • Classify set-up operations according to the given definition of external and internal set-up.
    • It takes into account the same operations and duration included in the current method.
      • Without improving any particular operation.
separating internal and external set up1
Separating internal and external set-up
  • Assure that the operations defined as external set-up can all be carried out with the machine running.
    • Time to get the necessary tools and materials is not allocated to the operators.

It is possible to reduce the exchange time by as much as 60% without any capital investments.

converting internal set up to external set up
Converting internal set-up to external set-up
  • The set-up process time reduction from the first stage can be very significant but is not where SMED ends.
converting internal set up to external set up1
Converting internal set-up to external set-up
  • This stage examines two important aspects.
    • Re-evaluate the internal set-up.
      • Check or see if some of them were considered erroneously as internal.
    • Look for alternatives that allow internal set-up to be carried out in whole or in part as external operations.
      • For example, is it possible to screw a die to a press before placing it inside the press chamber?
converting internal set up to external set up2
Converting internal set-up to external set-up
  • This stage will require an economic investment.
    • Carry out a cost justification.
    • Sometimes the investment will be necessary in spite of the economics.
converting internal set up to external set up3
Converting internal set-up to external set-up
  • Other important aspect to consider.
    • New process or system reliability.
    • The possible appearance of new operations.
    • The benefits and possible risks of the new process.

It is possible to achieve set-up process time nearing ingle minutes (< 10 minutes)

streamlining all aspects of the set up process
Streamlining all aspects of the set-up process
  • This stage tries to improve all the set-upoperations.
    • Both internal and external.
    • Trying to eliminate some operations.
  • SMED methodology recommends that one follows systematically these four stages.
    • Common sense -> not be invested in operations that previously have not been optimized.
streamlining all aspects of the set up process1
Streamlining all aspects of the set-up process
  • “stage 3”.
    • Improvement of the external set-up operations.
    • Revisit of the internal activities that have not been possible to convert into external.
first stage tools
First stage tools
  • Numerous time wastes take place in many set-up processes.
    • Materials are moved to the warehouse with the machine stopped.
    • Tools and dies are supplied late, or incorrectly.
    • Tools and dies that are not needed, are taken back to the supply room before starting the machine.
first stage tools1
First stage tools
  • Some required screws and tools were not collected during the set-up process.
  • Some nuts are just too tight when trying to remove them.

It is necessary to eliminate all these wastes.

first stage tools2
First stage tools
  • Try to answer certain questions before starting the set-up.
    • What has to be done before starting the change?
    • How many screws are necessary in order to fix the die? Of what type?
    • What tools are necessary? Are they prepared for proper conditions?
    • Where should the tools be placed after using them?
first stage tools3
First stage tools
  • A group of visual controls have been developed.
  • Checklist.
    • Questionnaire that should be checked before each set-up process.
      • Verify in advance that all elements that should be prepared are in fact ready and available.
    • Can be universal for all products changeover or specific for each product.
first stage tools4
First stage tools
  • Check panel placed next to the machine.
    • Small number of tools or exclusive tools.
      • The worker can visually check if all the necessary tools are located.
    • In some check panels the tools are silhouetted.
    • Another strategy is to code the tools with two stickers.
      • A sticker is placed in the machine and another is placed on the tool.
first stage tools5
First stage tools
  • Function checks.
    • The checklist or the check panel do not show the die and tools status.
      • Material inlays.
    • Special devices for checking the molds before placing them in the machine.
      • If the company does not own one ->second stage.
first stage tools6
First stage tools
  • Parts and tools transportation improvements.
    • Transportation from the warehouse to the work area should be carried out before the exchange begins.
      • “traditional press exchange process”
        • Removes the used mold -> loads it in a crane -> takes it to the warehouse -> loads the new mold -> place it.
      • “new changeover process”
        • Load the new mold -> leave it next to the machine -> take out the mold -> leave it next to the machine -> loads up the new mold -> set the machine into operation -> carry the used mold to take it to the warehouse.
first stage tools7
First stage tools
  • This “new changeover” looks like it takes longer than the traditional method.
    • According to Shingo’s definition of set-up time, the time with the machine stopped is drastically reduced.
second stage tools
Second stage tools
  • The second stage usually runs parallel with the third stage.
  • SMED methodology offers some recommendations that facilitate complex cases studies.
    • Movements around the machine should not be questioned.
      • Will be analyzed in the third stage.
    • It is not that some operations will be eliminated.
  • There are several methods broadly intended to enhance the set-up process.
endless material method
Endless material method
  • When a reel is empty, it should be removed and replaced with a full one.
    • Rolling mill or on packing machines.
  • The changeover time of reels could potentially be eliminated if the end of a reel is welded or tied to the beginning of the following one.
    • The product made with the welding seem would be scrape.
endless material method1
Endless material method
  • Temporary containers.
    • If it is not possible to weld or tie the reels to carry out the changeover operation.
    • Save set-up time considerably because they eliminate the movements to locate and bring in the new reel.
    • If the reels allow it, it might be possible to tie the previous reel with the following reel and with a simple turn, carry out the exchange.
second stage tools1
Second stage tools
  • Press die preheat.
    • There are devices that heat the molds up before being placed in the machine.
      • The main concern in this case is labor safety.
  • Function standardization.
    • Standardize some measures (height and depth).
      • The set-up process should be as safe as before.
      • The quality of the manufactured pieces should not be adversely affected.
    • Add new functionalities or features to the mold.
second stage tools2
Second stage tools
  • Tools duplication.
    • Have two or more identical elements (cranes, tools, pallets,…) to reduce the set-up time.
      • A single six pack is as easy to handle as a single can of soda.
    • With a double crane it is possible to prepare the next mold and to extract the previous one without the need of removing and placing the molds again.
third stage tools
Third stage tools
  • The improvement or elimination of an operation requires reengineering some aspect of the product or process.
    • it is possible to make the operation in a different way?
    • Is this operation necessary?
    • Is this procedure the most appropriate?
third stage tools1
Third stage tools
  • Up to this stage, external operations have not been analyzed.
    • Will the set-up specialist have enough time?
  • Schedule the changeovers so that the specialists are not needed at the same time in two machines.
  • Internal operations can be improved.
    • Analyze in detail the movements around the machine.
    • Determine the optimal number of workers that should take part in the set-up process.
improving tool storage indicators strategy
Improving tool storage. Indicators’ strategy
  • Begin with the 5S’s.
  • Organize tool storage in an efficient way.
    • Keeping high use items close for easy access.
  • Organizing the tooling so that it is easily located and identified.
  • The 5S methodology offers a common orientation when choosing the coding standards.
parallel operations
Parallel operations
  • For large machines, it is necessary to carry out operations at the front of the machine as well as at the back of it.
    • The worker can waste important set-up time when walking around the machine.
  • The set-up time and complexity can be reduced with the help of a second worker.
parallel operations1
Parallel operations
  • Utilize a task map to indicate what operations will be carried out by each worker
    • Starting with the initial situation.
parallel operations2
Parallel operations
  • Two workers executing the exchange in a parallel way.
  • Table shows task sharing and those tasks that can be carried out simultaneously as well as the times where the workers should be waiting.
parallel operations3
Parallel operations
  • Allows the Lean thinker to discover which are the most important tasks that should be improved.
  • Labor safety, once again, is a priority in this type of synchronized work.
    • Safety mats that stop the machine when they are activated.
    • Confirmation buttons.
third stage tools2
Third stage tools
  • One-Motion Method.
    • Perform more than one task simultaneously.
      • Electric and hydraulic connections.
third stage tools3
Third stage tools
  • Functional clamps.
    • Devices that are used to passively hold an object in a fixed position with the minimum effort.
      • The SMED methodology seeks to eliminate the use of screws and nuts as fixing elements.
    • Pear-shaped holes.
    • U-shaped washers rings.
third stage tools4
Third stage tools
  • Functional clamps.
    • C-shaped washers.
    • Guttered thread.
    • Single-movement method.
    • Reduce the tools variety.
eliminating trials and adjustments
Eliminating trials and adjustments
  • Can represent 50% of the total changeover time.
  • They are not only decreased but eliminated.
    • A set-point should be used instead of an adjustment.
      • Without applying the trial and error method.
    • The adjusting procedures must be written
    • The machine parameters value should be specified.
  • OTED (One Touch Exchange of Die).
process automation
Process Automation
  • The last resource after the successful implementation of the previous methods.
    • Process automation supposes high investments costs.
  • Regardless of its expensive implementation, in some cases it is the best alternative.
zero changeover
Zero changeover
  • When Shingo died in 1990, Sekine and Arai continued his work.
    • They tried to achieve set-up times of less than a minute.
    • They create a strategy called Zero changeover.
zero changeover1
Zero changeover
  • The only way to achieve set-up times near to seconds was to automate the exchange process.
    • Represents large investments.
    • Many of the achieved improvements, came from ideas developed by Shingo.
smed effects and benefits
SMED effects and benefits
  • Easier set-up process.
    • New changeover procedures.
      • Set-up process is simplified and easier to carry out.
    • Many of the operations can be carried out by the majority of the employees.
    • Increased safety also results from the improved changeover simplicity.
    • Eliminate defective parts.
smed effects and benefits1
SMED effects and benefits
  • On-hand stock production.
    • Manufacturing batch size can be decreased as well.
      • Work-in-process will decrease.
        • Mean time of material flow will decrease.
        • Lead time will decrease too because it is directly related with the time of material flow.
  • Workplace tasks simplification.
    • Tool coding, a clean and upstanding machine environment.
    • Easier to locate tools.
smed effects productivity and flexibility

Production (pi)

set-up (si)

pi

si

Productivity

Production (pi)

set-up (si)

pi

si

pi

si

Flexibility

SMED effects. Productivity and flexibility
  • The main benefits.
    • Productivity.
    • Flexibility.
  • Productivity.
    • Decrease the machine’s load in order to increase the productive period.
  • SMED’s principal benefit is to increase flexibility as it will be show next.
smed effects productivity and flexibility1
SMED effects. Productivity and flexibility
  • Productivity increase.
    • SMED is an alternative among other methods
  • Increase in flexibility.
    • SMED is the only solution
      • Buying a new machine does not provide an increase on the flexibility.
smed effects productivity and flexibility2

Buying a second machine

M1

Production (pi)

set-up (si)

pi

set-up (si)

set-up (si)

2 Productos

M2

Production (pi)

set-up (si)

pi

set-up (si)

set-up (si)

2 Products

4 Products

Investing in SMED implementation

M1

Production (pi)

si

si

Production (pi)

si

si

si

si

4 Products

2 Products

SMED effects. Productivity and flexibility
economic benefits
Economic benefits
  • Economic benefits depend on the machine situation in which the SMED is applied.
    • Saturated machine.
      • Liberate the machine from its load time to increase the machine availability
        • The benefit takes place due to the economic margin in the sales increment.
economic benefits1
Economic benefits
    • Not saturated machine.
      • The necessary time to carry out a production order will decrease.
        • Saved cost in the workforce.
  • If the goal is to increase flexibility can be impossible.
    • Qualitative benefits derived from SMED.
summary
Summary
  • This chapter has presented a basic but helpful methodology to reduce the set-up time in a machine.
  • SMED’s methodology proposes the arrangement of the needed tools used in the set-up process before the machine finishes the previous lot.
summary1
Summary
  • The main benefit of the set-up time reduction is the increase in the flexibility of the production.
  • Nevertheless, the economic justification of a SMED project, focus on flexibility increment, is quite difficult.