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California Gold Rush and Statehood. 1848 - . Study Guide Identifications. Gold Rush of 1848 Gold Rush of 1849 Polk’s Annual Address to Congress Indian prices Digger Ounce Foreign Miner’s Tax People V. Hall Act for the Government and Protection of Indians Indian Slavery Scalp Bounty

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study guide identifications
Study Guide Identifications
  • Gold Rush of 1848
  • Gold Rush of 1849
  • Polk’s Annual Address to Congress
  • Indian prices
  • Digger Ounce
  • Foreign Miner’s Tax
  • People V. Hall
  • Act for the Government and Protection of Indians
  • Indian Slavery
  • Scalp Bounty
  • Genocide
  • Demographic Flip
  • Mexican American War
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
study guide questions
Study Guide Questions
  • What was the nature of the 1848 and 1849 California Gold Rush?
  • What characterized American Indian Policy during the gold Rush?
  • What legislation did Americans establish in California that led to disparity based on race and ethnicity?
  • How did America Acquire California?
convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide
Convention on thePrevention and Punishmentof the Crime of Genocide
  • Adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948

Article 2

  • In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
  • (a) Killing members of the group;

b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

  • (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
  • (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
  • (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
the gold rush of 1848
The Gold Rush of 1848
  • Gold Rush impacted indigenous population, changed the landscape irrevocably.
    • James Marshall
    • John A. Sutter
    • Maidu village of Koloma
indian labor
Indian Labor
  • Californios
  • Mining Companies
  • Independent Claims
  • Payment in supplies s. grubbing for 1,000s worth of gold dust and nuggets
organization of mining companies
Organization of Mining Companies
  • Maidu, Nissinan, Miwok, Pomo, Yokut
    • Charles M. Weber, rancher of Stockton, California
      • contracted Jose Jesus, headman of the Northern valley Yokut Indians.
  • meat, beans, sugar, coffee, clothing = $50,000 in gold.
1849 gold rush
1849 Gold Rush
  • President Polk’s Annual Address to Congress
  • Abundance of Gold
  • Miners Mainly from United States – 90,000 in all
    • The “49ers” include:
      • Americans, French, Germans, Englishmen, Australians, Mexicans, Italians, Chinese, African Americans
      • IMMIGRATION causes population of California to sky rocket
  • 1848 – 14,500
  • 1849 – 26,000
  • 1850 – 115,000
  • 1852 – 223,856
  • 1860 - 380,000
across the plains
Across the Plains
  • 6-9 month Trek from the Eastern United States, Canada or Mexico

1849 32,000 walked

1850 200,000 more

Cholera, exhaustion, Starvation, Sierra winters

By ship; overcrowding, disease, inadequate food and water, storms

  • Miner’s

Tent Store

Indian Prices

Digger Ounce

  • 50-500$ for colored Handkerchief's
  • a string of beads/ 1lb of beads=1 lb of gold
chinese immigration
Chinese Immigration

4,000 by the end of 1851

25,000 by 1852

1860 8% stayed in

San Francisco

foreign miners tax
Foreign Miners Tax
  • Population Pressure in the Northern Fields
    • Desire to Expel Foreign Miners
  • Passed by State Legislature in 1850:
    • Affects all non-US citizens
    • Includes Californios despite Treaty
  • $20 per month for License
  • Forces Foreign Miners Out:
    • Mexicans
    • Chinese
  • Repeal and Reinstitution
  • Mining Camp codes
    • Excluded Mexicans, Latinos and Asians from diggings
    • Californios lumped in as Mexicans
  • Miners License tax, violence, rape, and murder
    • 15,000 present
    • 10,000 left the fields
  • Credit-ticket system
    • 1852 25,000, largest foreign minority
    • Miner’s tax re-instituted to target Chinese
    • Chinese protested rise in tax
  • 1854 - People Vs. Hall – Chinese legally Indian
    • No naturalization or right to testify legally
  • 1855 - Head Tax 50$ - non citizens
african americans in the gold fields
African Americans in the Gold Fields

Early 1850’s

200-300 came as


The census of 1850

Counted 962, of those

600-700 were in the

Gold fields.

african americans in gold fields
African Americans in Gold Fields
  • Auburn Ravine, California.

By 1852 2,000

1% of California Population

women in the gold rush
Women in the Gold Rush

Matilda Heron

Actress - below

  • Above Lola Montez

Actor, Dancer, Courtesan

the barbary coast
The Barbary Coast
  • Women
    • 1st 1848 Special and Few
        • Chile
        • Latin America
        • New Orleans
        • France
        • China
      • Prostitution
        • $400 per night ($20 oz for gold)
      • Housing
        • Salons, brothels, dance halls, tents

Three Classes

Parlor Houses

Street Cribs


Parlor Houses

Part of Society

High Class Women

Evening of Entertainment


Judges, police, important men

paid taxes, gave charity

Madame Ah Toy

Parlor House

decline of indian miners
Decline of Indian miners
  • American racism and Indian policy
    • White attitudes and perception – 1848-68 rape, slavery, extermination
  • First killings ushered in the American Holocaust in California
    • March 1849 – Maidu village/American river men tried to rescue their wives, sisters and mothers, miners shot them to death
    • Weber's Creek – 12 more shot, 7-8 captive, told to run and shot in the back
act for the government protection of indians
Act for the “Government & Protection of Indians”
  • California is Starved for Labor in the Late 1840s and Early 1850s
  • State Legislature Takes Action to Secure Control of Indians with “An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians”
    • Denies Rights Guaranteed by Treaty
    • No Legal Redress Possible for Indians
    • System of “Apprenticeships”
    • “Vagrants,” or “unemployed’ auctioned off for labor
    • Empowered Local Justices of the Peace
    • Keep Control of Indians and Exploit Their Labor
    • Legal System of Slavery and Encourages Murder
horseman of the apocalypse
Horseman of the Apocalypse





William McCollum Oregon generally “hunt [Indians] as they would wild beasts”.

indian slavery
Indian Slavery
  • Act for the Government and Protection of Indians
    • 1855 – Indian Children sold for $50-$500
  • Scalp Bounty
    • Eureka, Humboldt County, California. Citizens of Honey Lake
      • Wiyot Band headed by Smoke Creek Sam
      • 25 cents/scalp
military orders
Military Orders
  • Wiyot people of Humboldt County, California
  • Miwok, Manuel Medina
  • 1852 - Upper Crossing Massacre (0ver 40)
  • 1852 Fresh Water Massacre
  • 1858 Massacre
  • 1860 Indian Island Massacre
    • 60-80 bodies found

Jump Dance Ceremony – Indian island

Wiyot: Tolowat Village at Duluwat Island

Humboldt Bay near Eureka, California

1863 shoot indians on site
1863 – Shoot Indians on Site

Yurok population 2500 in 1851 to 610 in 1910

population decline
Population Decline
  • Estimated population of one million
  • 1846 the population had declined to 120,000 Or 94% decline.
  • 1850 over 100,000 Indian’s died by disease, malnutrition, enslavement and murder.
  • 1860’s 20-40,000 further declining to 17-19,000.
racist views persisted
Racist Views Persisted
  • Chico Courant, July 28, 1866 offered the position that “it is a mercy to the red devils to exterminate them, and a saving of many white lives treaties are played out – there is one kind of treaty that is effective – cold lead.” California was the model for white-Indian relations throughout the course of the mining frenzy.
gold rush revisited
Gold Rush Revisited
  • Pete Wilson - 150 year Celebration Committee, 2000
    • Indian Protest
  • Indian Island Massacre Revisited
    • 2004 city fathers
    • Ceremony
    • Bridging gaps
manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • Racial Component of Manifest Destiny
    • inferiority of non whites
      • Mexican Californios are “scarcely a visible grade in the scale of intelligence above the barbarous tribes by whom they are surrounded”
      • American Minister to Mexico, Waddy Thompson, 1840s
      • Mexicans were in general “lazy, ignorant, vicious and dishonest”
  • John L. O’Sullivan, Editor & Democratic Republican in 1845
      • “Manifest Destiny to overspread and posses the whole of the continent which providence had been given us for the development of thee great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us”
      • Central assumptions of Anglo superiority
the mexican war 1846 1848
Causes of the War

Texan Independence, 1836

Manifest Destiny The 28th State, 1845

Rio Grande Border or Nueces Border?


War: May 13, 1846

Texas Republic 1836

Unrecognized by MX

1845 invited by Congress to join Union

Mexico viewed as hostile act

The Mexican War, 1846-1848
constitutional convention 1850
Constitutional Convention, 1850
  • Riley’s Order
  • Colton Hall, Monterey
  • 48 Delegates
    • Californios (8) Serve
    • Early Divisions: taxation
      • North/South
      • Californio/American
  • State or territory? Free of slave?

1852 Gov McDougal order taxes property paid

6 cow counties/ 6,000 people = 42,000

12 mining cts/120,000= 21,000

main themes
Main Themes

American holocaust


Indian policy

Demography Flip

  • 98-99% First Nations/Californios 1848
  • 99% “white”/ 1% all others 1849

Market Economy established


New Racism

Manifest destiny