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FEM 3001 (INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT). INSTRUCTOR DR SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB JPMPK, FEM CONTACT NO PHONE: 03-89467088 E-MAIL: sitinor@putra.upm.edu.my. FEM 3001 is the basic course in your entire studies. OUTLINE.

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FEM 3001 (INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT)


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    1. FEM 3001(INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT) INSTRUCTOR DR SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB JPMPK, FEM CONTACT NO PHONE: 03-89467088 E-MAIL: sitinor@putra.upm.edu.my FEM 3001 is the basic course in your entire studies

    2. OUTLINE UNIT 1- PHYLOSOPHY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: HISTORY, RELIGION & THEORY UNIT 2 - HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN ECOLOGICAL CONTEXTS UNIT 3 - LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT UNIT 4 - FITRAH AND POTENTIALS UNIT 5 - VALUES AND CULTURE FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    3. UNIT 1: PHYLOSOPHY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: HISTORY, RELIGION & THEORY What is Human Development? The Concept of Insan & Human Beings Human Development The Creation of Human Beings The Scientific Approach The Religious Perspective FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    4. What is Human Development? Definition: • Scientific study of processes of change and stability of human beings (from conception till death) • Systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death, or from “womb to tomb.” (from book Sigelman & Rider, 2009) • The systematic changes and continuities fall into three broad domains: • Physical development: growth of body • Cognitive development: changes in perception, language, memory. • Psychosocial development: motives, personality traits, interpersonal skill and relationship.

    5. Basis philosophy and concepts of human development  human as God-created being  INSAN • In this course, insan refers to universal understandings of human-beings • Insan in the context of their environments; where interactions & transactions take place; which will in turn influence & will be influencing quality of life & quality of the environment. • Focus on human beings across life cycle • Ecological perspective – broad “tool” to understand human beings as person- in-environment • Base: Faith in God; Goals: Quality of life, quality of environment • Through scientific processes of describing, explaining, predicting & modifying of behaviour

    6. The creation of human beings • Using developmental approach, studies on human development normally have been focussing on child development • During the 6th – 15th century , children were assumed as mini adults, preformationism;children are known as persons who need protection • 16th century : The religious perspective (Protestan) demanded parents to be strict in nurturing their children in order for them to be able to tell right from wrong • 17th century: John Locke pointed the importance of human dignity; respects; > behavioural • Children, known as tabula rasa (blank slate); originally “pure”; strated form nothing; need to be guided through experiences • Children were viewed as passive mechanistic, development occurred continuously; and parents mould their children’s behaviour through warmth nurturing FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    7. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) – a French philosopher; claimed that children are noble savages(have natural tendency/sense of differentiating right from wrong; can grow to become healthy adults • Children have internal senses; cognitive ability & unique emotions that are prone to be abused / corrupted by adults who trained them • Rousseau introduced the stages of development and maturity concepts • Aristotle: HumChildren are organismic (active designer of their own destiny); development does not occur continuously, but in stages; nature’s role in determining changes in life • Human beings are the thinking, social, political animal who run various functions in order to live FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    8. THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH… • The first scientific investigations of development were undertaken on late 19th century. • Scholars observe the growth and development of their own children, and publish in the form of baby biographies. • The most influential baby biographer was Charles Darwin. • Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882), British “naturalist” • Darwin studied variations in plants and animal species • No 2 items/individuals/specimens that are 100% the same • The founder of the evolution theory • Darwin’s evolutionary perspective and studies of the development of embryos strongly influenced early theories of human development, which emphasized universal, biological based maturational changes. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    9. 2 basic principles of the evolution theory: natural selection & survival of the fittest • Natural selection: some species are naturally selected to survive in certain environment because they have the fit with characteristic  able to adapt; Others … died / perished • Those who survived will continue to live for a long time reproduce & continue to generate quality characteristics for their next generations • Focus: Physical & behavioural adaptations • Darwin claimed that at the early stage (prenatal) some species are similar • He concluded that all species including human beings have the same ancestors • This has created debates and finally proven to be false. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    10. Normative Era • G. Stanley Hall (1846 – 1924), American psychologist, fore father of research on child development, first president of the American Psychological Association. • He collects more objective data on large samples of individuals  questionnaire • Influential book: adolescence (1904) • Adolescence was a time of emotional ups and downs and rapid changes. • Substantial changes in brain and in cognitive and social functioning do take place during adolescence. • With Arnold Gesell (1880 – 1961) – they claimed human development as “genetically determined, develop automatically.. Just like flowers” • The normative method refers to research on human behaviour based on responses from MANY respondents; often linked with certain age group. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    11. Mental/Cognitive Testing Era • Alfred Binet (1857 – 1911), French Psychologist, applied normative method to test human intelligence • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test • It initiated heated debates over the issue of nature versus nurture FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    12. THE RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE • Human beings are not machines (there are mind & spirit); not animals nor angels, and not GOD who creates himself • In Islam, human beings are created by Allah in the best form of creation, to become khalifah FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    13. Surah Al-Hijr (26) yang bermaksud: • “Dan sesungguhnyakami (Allah) telahmenciptakanmanusia (Adam) daritanahliatkering, (yang berasal) daritanahlumpurhitam yang diberibentuk • Surah At-Tin: (4) yang bermaksud: • “Sesungguhnyatelahkami (Allah) ciptakanmanusiaitudidalamsebaik-baikcara, kamimenjadikansesuatukelengkapansesuaidengankeadaannya” • Surah Al-Mu’minun (12 – 14) yang bermaksud: • “Dan sesungguhnyaKamitelahmenciptakanmanusiadari (saripati) tanah. KemudianKamijadikan (saritanah) ituairmani yang tersimpandalamtempat yang kukuh (rahim). Lalukamijadikan air maniitusegumpaldarah, lalugumpalandarahituKamijadikansegumpaldaging, danKamijadikangumpalandagingitutulangbelulang, lalukamilapisitulangbelulangitudengandaging. KemudianKamibentukiamenjadimakhluk yang lain. MahaSuci Allah, sebaik-baikpencipta FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    14. Men were created with certain purpose (amanah) – to function as khalifah who obeys his Creator. The coordination of both mind and spirit forms INSAN • Spiritual = related with 4 elements: spirit, the nafs, mind, and qalb • Roh = it’s God’s business; • Nafsu – bases for the reality of human beings: 3 levels of nafsu that urge or motivate behaviour: Ammarah, Lawwamah, Mutmainnah) • Akal – bases for kemuliaan; mengetahuisegalasesuatu • Qalbu (hati)- merasa; asaskeperibadian • Men have tendencies for good and bad deeds. Originally pure and clean, given mind to think, able to strive, given the urgency to need & want; and bestowed with energy • The QALB plays a big role in determining personality & behaviour where a person has to be responsible for FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    15. A PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT • Every age period of life is important • Focus: processes that took place • Perspectives that support this philosophy: FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    16. VARIOUS PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT… • Development is multi dimensional & inter disciplinary • Development continues through the life span • Both heredity & environment influence development • Development reflects both continuity & discontinuity • Development is cumulative • Development reflects both stability & change • Development is variable • Development is sometimes cyclical & repetitive • Development reflects individual differences • Development reflects cultural differences • Development influences are reciprocal FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    17. New (additional) perspective: • Development involves changing of allocation & resources. • Investment of resources (time, energy, talent, money & social support) are varied across life span • Resources are used for GROWTH, MAINTENANCE, RECOVERY, DEALING WITH LOSS • During childhood / young adulthood - resources go for growth; mid-life - balanced use; old age – regulations of losses. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    18. UNIT 2:HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT • Ecological Background • We do not live in isolation – we interact • Environment: everything outside the system that we (the organism) live in • Human beings = biological organism + social organism that interact and have transactions with(in) the environment FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    19. The History Behind Ecological Approach • Many proponents of ecological concepts. • Aristotle and Plato • The word “ecology” was introduced by Ernest Haeckel (1969) – German zoologist • Originated from Greek term – Oikus (home/family) • Human ecology – the study of individual in the context of family, household and environment. • Individual development - interaction between the environment and heredity. • A Chemist, Ellen Swallow Richards proposed a Scientific field of study to examine the influence of home environment on the family. • Ellen studied air and water quality, sanitation, food & nutrition. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    20. General System Theory • Basic concepts from the General Systems theory are applied • Holistic perspective = holism, looking at living nature as interacting wholes (the whole is greater than the sum of the parts) • Every system has 4 elements: • Objects = parts of the system; what the system is made of (in a family – each member = object); basic element of the system • Attributes = qualities/properties of the system & its members; indicate characteristics; uniqueness • Relationships = connection between / among the elements of the system (between object-environment) • Environment = anything that surrounds; can affect systems  understanding person-in context FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    21. What is ECOSYSTEM? .. • A type of system .. Ecological system • Made up of living organism (O) with their environments (E) • originates from ecology: a science that investigate & describe reciprocal relationships between O & E) • Basis: a survival unit never consist of O or species in a static environment; but rather, that it is an ecosystem with all O in reciprocal relationships with each other & with E • Human behavior is influenced by the environment and vice versa • Even though the environment changes due to technology, human beings need to impose control on life & environment to ascertain quality of life FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    22. Ecosytem seek a steady / stable / balanced state of existence  HOMEOSTASIS • Organism adapts to reach homeostasis ENVIRONMENT Processing Output Input Feedback ENVIRONMENT FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    23. Bases: Human development is studied from the context of person-in-environment • The principle: all growth & development occur in the context of relationships • It’s an inter-disciplinary concept. • To integrate & link various human & family issues  holistic & in a comprehensive manner to ensure a global plan of action. • Human ecology = a field of study that considers individuals & families within their environment & the relationships between them FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    24. Human Ecological System Perspective System Theory Ecological Theory Organism + Environment + Interaction + Objects + Attributes + Relationships + Environment + Human Ecology FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    25. 6 assumptions for the human ecological framework • Human-beings are not passive receivers of information & inputs • Systems are dynamic  always changing • Individuals & social systems have the capacity to change (they also wish to change) • Changing one element of a system will cause change(s) to other parts • Systems rely interdependently on one another to operate • All systems have boundaries FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    26. Pioneer: • Beatrice Paolucci(Michigan State University) employed the home-economics approach • Suggested that family is a social system that depend on: • The natural environment for physical maintenance • Social environment for human values; meaning and quality of life. • Margaret Buboltz & Susan Sontag (Michigan State University) continue Paolucci’s work • Proposed 3 environments that surround human beings: • Natural - biophysical • Socio-cultural • Technology-human constructed FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    27. ENVIRONMENT • Physical, biological, social, economic, political, esthetics & structure surroundings; contexts for human behavioral & growth/development • Can be classified according to resources within them. • Natural / bio-physical environment • Mother-nature resources • Water, earth, snow, time, plants, animals, fossil, minerals • Can be beneficial for human consumptions • Socio cultural environment • Social institution - kinship, religion, politic, economy, legal, recreation or symbolic group • Determines civilization & cultural system FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    28. Technology – Human Constructed Environment • Buildings, bridge, hydro-electric, houses, highway • Built using materials from the natural environment • Science and technology advancement helps to improve quality of life; abuse of it may destroy life FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    29. Family Ecosystem Model [Bubolz & Sontag; 1990] Technology-human constructed Family Socio-cultural Natural-bio-physical TIME – Past, Present, Future FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    30. Human Ecology: • UrieBronfenbrenner (Cornell University) focused on contextual aspects of human development • He introduced 5 environmental systems: micro, meso, exo, macro & chrono. • Classification based on size of the environment • MICRO  small • MACRO  big • Bronfenbrenner (1979): the ecology of human development based upon the relationships between human beings & context where they interact or make transactions (exchange resources) • The 5 systems are embedded within each other; the nearest environment is the environment where the individual resides & develops FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    31. MICROSYSTEM • An immediate physical and social environment in which the individual interact with and influences by them. • The nearest environment to the individuals • A pattern of activities, roles & interpersonal relations experienced by the developing person in a given setting with particular physical & material characteristics • Eg: Home environment & classroom are micro environments for primary school children FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    32. MESOSYSTEM • Comprises the interrelations among 2 or more settings in which the developing person actively participates • Example: • Mesosystem for a child is the relationship between home, neighbor, and school • Marital conflict (one microsystem) influence child performances in school (a second microsystem) • Child: relations between home-school & neighborhood; • Adults: family-work-social life • It is a system for the micro system FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    33. EXOSYSTEM • Refers to > 1settings that do not involve the developing person as an active participant, but in which events occur that affect, or are affected by what happens in the setting containing the developing person Eg: exosystem of a child might include the parent’s place of work, a school attended by his older siblings, activities of the neighborhood etc FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    34. MACROSYSTEM • Abstract in nature : refers to consistencies, in the form & content of lower order system (micro, meso, exo) that exist, or could exist, at the level of subculture or the culture as a whole along with any belief systems or ideology underlying such consistencies. • eg: socio-cultural / customs; legal systems, religion, education, defense system. • space is perceived differently across cultures – what determined the differences? Law? Religion? Custom? FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    35. CHRONOSYSTEM • Refers to patterns of events & transitions that take place in individual’s environment through-out his/her life • An idea that changes in people and their environment occur in time frame and unfold in particular patterns over a person’s lifetime. • The element of TIME is important in this system FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    36. MACROSISTEM EXOSYSTEM Pattern of behaviour Value system MESOSYSTEM MICROSYSTEM CHRONO-SYSTEM Pattern of events & changes in structure according to time INDIVIDU Family School Community Government agencies Friends Work place Belief system FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    37. The importance of the ecological perspective in understanding human development: • It takes the holistic approach (considers multiple factors regarding person – in – context). Focuses on wholeness.. • Any phenomenon is seen from multiple perspectives - aiming to get the obtain high quality of life / environment • Allows for an integrated plan of action – balanced & holistic; lend to improve Quality of life (individual, family, community…) FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    38. Environments do not DETERMINE human behavior; but they can influence them through : limiting / blocking/ allowing/ facilitating / opening for opportunities & possibilities • Families do not exist in isolation from the other environments, rather, they have a degree of control and freedom on their interactions / transactions with the environment & acquisition of resources FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    39. Decisions & actions that are taken by individual/ families will give an impact on the community, culture, other environments … the WORLD. • The world’s ecological well-being depends on the decisions & actions by the nation… down to the individual & families • Decisions made at macro level or even at the WOLRD’s platform, will directly or indirectly impacting the individual & families. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    40. Basic principles in ecological model (Conrad & Novick, 1996) • Human development is studied through the person-in-environment perspective • Multiple & different environments experienced by individuals influenced the growth & development of individuals • Every environment has its risks & protective factors • The interactions between individuals & environment are two-way / reciprocal. It creates a complex feedback system • Individual & family will always face changes & growth. Stress, coping & adaptation are normal developmental experiences. • The general human/family ecological focused on the near environment (people, materials) which provide physical context & prime base for personal & familial activities • The community system (neighborhood, market, schools, mosques/church/temple are included • The macro (bigger) environments may also influence individual & family. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    41. Human development occurs within the family context through family processes & activities • These processes & activities are needed and influenced by the reciprocal interactions with & within the natural-physical; human constructed & socio-cultural environments • The outcome  QUALITY OF LIFE & ENVIRONMENT • Human Q of life: To what extend human needs, values & goals are met & how are they obtained • Q of environment = safety, health, coping strategy, adequacy, justice… in providing natural resources, economic, social needs & support. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    42. SUMMARY • The ecological perspective encourages the followings criteria in order to understand human beings: • An integrated thinking • Creative thinking • A comprehensive focus of dynamic • Systemic understanding • Ethical reasoning • Variability • Practical action • Self understanding FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    43. OTHER THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Definition Issues in Human Development Freud and Erikson: Psychoanalytic Theory Learning Theory Piaget: Cognitive Theory FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    44. Definition A set of interrelated statements that provides an explanation for a class of events. (from book Crandell, Crandell, & Zanden, 2009) A set of ideas proposed to describe and explain certain phenomena. (from book Sigelman & Rider, 2009) A good theory helps us to describe, predict, and explain human development. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    45. From bookSigelman & Rider, 2009, pg33 FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    46. Freud (1856-1939): Psychoanalytic Theory He proposed that people are driven by motives and emotional conflicts of which they are largely unaware and that they are shaped by their earliest experiences in life. Each people has certain amount of psychic energy that can be used to satisfy basic urges. They are divided into three components: Id: an impulsive, irrational part of the personality whose mission is to satisfy the instincts. People seek immediate gratification. Example: infants cry when they are hungry until their needs are met. Ego: rational side of the individual that tries to find realistic way of gratifying the instincts. Ego emerged during infants. Example: toddler lead dad to kitchen and say “cookie” when he/she hungry. Superego: internalized moral standards. From 3-6 years old. Example: not violating the rules and may feel shame if they do. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    47. Freud’s Psychosexual Theory FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    48. Erikson (1902-1994): Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory Concern with inner dynamics of personality and it evolves through systematic stages. He proposed that personality continues to develop over the entire life span. Erikson concerned with psychosocial development, or development of the person within a social context. FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    49. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY

    50. LEARNING: Watson (1913): classical conditioning He believed that human development and functioning should be based on observations of overt behaviours rather than on speculations about unobservable cognitive and emotional process. Classical conditioning: simple form of learning in which a stimulus that initially had no effect on the individual comes to elicit a response through its association with a stimulus that already elicit the response. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): An unlearned stimulus Unconditioned response (UR): a response come from UCS Conditioned stimulus (CS): A neutral stimulus come first and following by UR. Then the neutral stimulus will become CS Conditioned response (CR): a response come from CS FEM3001/PJJ/JAN2012/SNY