Commercial fibers
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COMMERCIAL FIBERS. Distribution of Strength. Glass Fibers. E : E lectric C : C hemical S : High S trength. Molecular Structure of Glass. Amorphous Non-crystalline. Process of Spinning Glass Fibers. Carbon and Graphite Fibers. Process to Manufacture Carbon Fibers.

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Glass fibers
Glass Fibers

E : Electric

C : Chemical

S : High Strength

Molecular structure of glass
Molecular Structure of Glass



Characteristics of aramid fiber
Characteristics of Aramid Fiber

  • glass transition temperature 360C

  • can be used at 300C for a limited time

  • low CTE (-410-6K-1)

  • low electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal capacity

  • Reinforcement matrix interface
    Reinforcement – Matrix Interface

    • Strong interface ― high strength & stiffness, low resistance to fracture

    • Weak interface ― low strength & stiffness, high resistance to fracture

    Wettability ― the extent to which a liquid will spread over a solid surface

    Lotus Effect

    Surface tension
    Surface Tension

    By 1st law of thermodynamics:

    Work done = Increment in free energy

    Where γ= free energy per unit area of liquid – gas interface

    = force per unit length

    = surface tension

    Spreading coefficient
    Spreading Coefficient

    The necessary condition for spreading of the liquid

    Define spreading coefficient

    wetting occurs

    no wetting is possible

    Example of wetting prediction
    Example of wetting prediction


    liquid: epoxy

    Solids:  alumina

     polyethylene

    epoxy – alumina:

    wetting is possible!

    epoxy – polyethylene:

    No wetting is possible!

    Contact angle




    Contact Angle

    By force equilibrium (at the stop liquid front on solid)

    Mechanisms of interfacial bonding
    Mechanisms of Interfacial Bonding

    • mechanical bonding :

      surface roughness ― interlocking or keying

      normal compression force ― thermal contraction

    Mechanisms of interfacial bonding1
    Mechanisms of Interfacial Bonding

    • Electrostatic bonding :

      coulombic force ― short range of interaction

    • Chemical bonding : secondary bonding

    Mechanisms of interfacial bonding2
    Mechanisms of Interfacial Bonding

    • Chemical bonding : secondary bonding

    Mechanisms of interfacial bonding3
    Mechanisms of Interfacial Bonding

    • Reaction or interdiffusion bonding :

      polymers― intertwining of molecules

      ceramics― interphase

      metals― intermetallic compounds

    Methods for measuring bond strength1
    Methods for measuring bond strength

    • Bulk specimen tests

    • Three-point bend - short-beam bend test interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) test

    • Iosipescu shear test

    Methods for measuring bond strength2
    Methods for measuring bond strength

    • Micro-indentation test