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United States History. 1st Semester Standards. American Colonization To Great Depression. Standards Review. Presented by Sharon Wilson March, 2011.

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United States History

1st Semester Standards

American Colonization

To Great Depression

Standards Review

Presented by Sharon Wilson

March, 2011


HSS.US.11.1.2Analyze the ideological origins of the AmericanRevolution, the Founding Fathers' philosophy ofdivinely bestowed unalienable natural rights, thedebates on the drafting and ratification of theConstitution, and the addition of the Bill of Rights.

  • The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution because the Founding Fathers were concerned that citizens needed protection from possible abuses of government power.
  • The key words of the Declaration of Independence below were written by Thomas Jefferson, but the idea came from the writings of John Locke.

“We hold these Truths to be self-evident that all Men are created

equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable

Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.”


HSS.US.11.1.2Analyze the ideological origins of the AmericanRevolution, the Founding Fathers' philosophy ofdivinely bestowed unalienable natural rights, thedebates on the drafting and ratification of theConstitution, and the addition of the Bill of Rights


HSS.US.11.1.3 Understand the history of the Constitution after 1787with emphasis on federal versus state authority andgrowing democratization.

  • The U.S. Constitution can only be changed by voters using the Amendment process.
  • Under the leadership of Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall, Congress solidified the process of judicial review(reviewing the constitutionality of state and federal laws.)
  • James Madison opposed the Bank of the United States because he believed the Constitution did not give the federal government the power to create a bank. James Madison was known as the “Father of the Constitution”.
  • Andrew Jackson destroyed the Second Bank of the United States by withdrawing the government’s deposits from the Bank.
  • By the end of the 1700s, many church leaders sensed that the doctrine of faith was being challenged by the growth of scientific knowledge.


HSS.US.11.2.2 Describe the changing landscape, including the growth of cities linked by industry and trade, and thedevelopment of cities divided according to race,ethnicity, and class.

  • There was growth in the Northeastern and Midwestern cities in the early 20th century due to the increase of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe.
  • Most 19th century and early 20th century immigrants lived in the same city with other immigrants from the same country.
  • The rapid urbanization of the U.S. in the late19th century took place mainly in the Northeast and Midwest.

Welcome to America

HSS.US.11.2.4 Analyze the effect of urban political machines andresponses to them by immigrants and middle-classreformers.
  • The Americanization movement of the early 20th century wanted to assimilate ethnic immigrant groups into the dominant culture.
  • During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, urban immigrants supported local political machines that provided essential services to the immigrants.

HSS.US.11.2.5 Discuss corporate mergers that produced trusts andcartels and the economic and political policies ofindustrial leaders.
  • Ford’s production of Model Ts in the early 20th century demonstrated the economic relationship between specializationand greater efficienciesin production.
  • A major goal of 19th-century industrialists in merging their companies was to gaincomplete controlover an industry.

hss us 11 4 3 discuss america s role in the panama revolution and the building of the panama canal
HSS.US.11.4.3 Discuss America's role in the Panama Revolution andthe building of the Panama Canal.
  • The United States supported a revolution in Panama at the turn of the 20th century in order to secure the right to build a canal through Central America.
  • Theodore Roosevelt sent U.S. ships to support Panama’s claim to independence.

Building of the Panama Canal


HSS.US.11.4.4 Explain Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy,William Taft's Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson's Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant speeches.



  • Theodore Roosevelt’s “Speak softly and carry a big stick” policy depended on a strong U.S. Navy.
  • The Roosevelt Corollary stated, in regard to the Monroe Doctrine, that the United States reserved the right to intervene in the affairs of Central American and the Caribbean.
  • President Taft’s “dollar diplomacy”exerted economic influence in Latin American countries rather than military force.
  • The Taft’s "Dollar Diplomacy" guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American businesses.

HSS.US.11.4.6 Trace the declining role of Great Britain and theexpanding role of the United States in world affairsafter World War II.
  • Following World War II, the United States became the leader in world affairs, a position previously held by Great Britain.
  • The war had taken a toll on Great Britain and the world was looking to a new nation to assist in world affairs.
  • The United States became the leader of the Free World as it was called and was recognized as a leading force in world affairs, especially in Europe, Latin America, and Asia.




America expands it influence in World Affairs



Discuss the policies of Presidents Warren Harding,

Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover.

  • Harding“Normalcy Program”consisted of the following ideas:
    • A call for a national budget program.
    • A program that would reduce national debt.
    • A program that would reduce taxes.
    • An emergency tariff to protect American industry and farm commodities.
    • Farm relief legislation (farm bankruptcies were up 20% from 1914).
    • Immigration restrictions to protect American jobs.
  • Calvin Coolidge continued Harding’s Normalcy policy and together, they cut the National debt left by Wilson by one-third.
    • There was an increased tax burden on the middle class
    • There was less tax burden on the poor.
  • At the beginning of the Great Depression, President Herbert Hoover wanted the role of government to be one that encouraged businesses, banks, and labor to work together.

HSS.US.11.5.2 Analyze the international and domestic events,interests, and philosophies that prompted attacks oncivil liberties, including the Palmer Raids, MarcusGarvey's "back-to-Africa" movement, the Ku Klux Klan,and immigration quotas and the responses oforganizations such as the American Civil LibertiesUnion, the National Association for the Advancement ofColored People, and the Anti-Defamation League tothose attacks.

  • The purpose of the American Civil Liberties Union is to defend the constitutional rights of citizens.
  • In the 1920s era the Ku Klux Klan was known for attacks on African Americans, Jews, immigrants, and Catholics.
  • The Palmer Raids were used because the U.S. Government feared a communist plot to overthrow the government.
  • Marcus Garvey believed that an important way for African Americans to achieve equality and fight discrimination was to create an independent nation in Africa.
  • A W.E.B. DuBois was the founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) which used legal action to end discrimination against African Americans.
  • The Anti-Defamation League brought national attention to the bigotry of the Ku Klux Klan.
  • The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a group that defends the rights guaranteed by the Constitution.
HSS.US.11.5.4 Analyze the passage of the Nineteenth Amendmentand the changing role of women in society.
  • The Nineteenth Amendmentgave women the right to vote.
  • The greatest reason for women working outside the home during World War I was due to the men being gone and fighting in the war.
  • During the women's rights movement, Susan B. Anthonyfought for voting rights for women.
  • During the 1920s, some women were called flappers. A flapper wasa young woman who adopted daring forms of behavior and fashion style.


HSS.US.11.5.5 > Comprehension

Describe the Harlem Renaissance and new trends in literature, music, and art, with special attention to the work of writers (e.g., Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes).

  • Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes were writers associated with the Harlem Renaissance.
  • Harlem Renaissance writers were trying to generate pride in African American culture.
  • Langston Hughes was the most famous poet of the Harlem Renaissance.
  • The most common topic of Harlem Renaissance writing was African Americans and their experiences of life.
  • The focal point of the Harlem Renaissance in 1920 was the marches on Washington D.C.

harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • During the 1920s Harlem Renaissance, a new style of music combined ragtime, blues, and other styles of music. It was known as
  • Most leaders of the Harlem Renaissance movement were middle class African Americans




Describe the monetary issues of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that gave rise to the establishment of the Federal Reserve and the weaknesses in key sectors of the economy in the late 1920s.

  • Industrialistopposed increased coinage of silver in the 19th Century because it made getting business loans more difficult.
  • In 1913, the Federal Reserve Act created a banking system that regulated the amount of money in circulation.
  • One of the major weaknesses in the economy of the 1920s was the iron, railroad, and mining industries which allowed little competition for small businesses.
  • People buying on credit was another crucial weakness of the 1920s economy.
  • Farmers and agricultural regionswere the least to benefit from any prosperity of the 1920s.


Understand the explanations of the principal causes of the Great Depression and the steps taken by the Federal Reserve, Congress, and Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt to combat the economic crisis.

  • Hoover established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to loan money to banks, insurance companies, and other depressed business during the early part of the Great Depression.
  • The Panic of 1893 led to the establishment of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
  • When Franklin D. Roosevelt took over as President, his response to the banking crisis of the Depression was to nationalize the banks to ensure they were following federal regulations.
  • Roosevelt helped many of the unemployed during the Depression by creating government run job programs and building projects.



Analyze the effects of and the controversies arising from New Deal economic policies and the expanded role of the federal government in society and the

economy since the 1930s (e.g., Works Progress Administration, Social Security, National Labor Relations Board, farm programs, regional development policies, and energy development projects such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, California Central Valley Project, and Bonneville Dam).

  • Social Security was a New Deal program designed to provide minimum retirement income.
  • Many businesses opposed the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the 1930s because of unfair competition with private power companies.
  • The TVA brought electricity to rural farming areas and was considered an important improvement for rural communities.
  • The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was a New Deal program that was created to employ large groups of artists and writers during the Great Depression.
  • The WPA and the CCC are examples of government programs developed by Roosevelt to get people to work.
  • The New Deal programs provided government with greater control of the economy which has continued to the present.


This is the End of Semester 1 Standards Review.

Be sure you review Semester 2 Standards Review. If you have completed both courses.