Mitosis
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Mitosis. The cell cycle has four main stages. The cell cycle is a regular pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division. Gap 1 (G 1 ): cell growth, organelle’s replicate, and cell maintains normal functions. The main stages of the cell cycle are gap 1, synthesis, gap 2, and mitosis.

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The cell cycle has four main stages
The cell cycle has four main stages

  • The cell cycle is a regular pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division.


Mitosis

  • Gap 1 (G1): cell growth, organelle’s replicate, and cell maintains normal functions

The main stages of the cell cycle are gap 1, synthesis, gap 2, and mitosis

  • DNA synthesis (S): copies DNA

  • Gap 2 (G2): additional growth

  • Mitosis (M): includes division of the cell nucleus (mitosis) and division of the cell cytoplasm (cytokinesis)

Important:

Mitosis occurs only if the cell is large enough and the DNA undamaged.


What is mitosis
What is Mitosis?

  • Mitosis: Cell division involving somatic (non-sex) cells

  • Involves only diploid cells

  • Form of asexual reproduction for some life (bacteria & protista, fungi)

  • End Result: Two genetically identical “daughter cells”


Interphase
Interphase

  • Divided into 3 Stages:

  • G1 Stage

    • Normal function performed

    • Cell growth

    • Organelles created

  • S Stage

    • Chromatin (DNA strands) duplicated

  • G2 Stage

    • Cell growth

    • Normal function performed


Prophase
Prophase

  • 1st Mitosis Stage

  • Chromatin (DNA strands) coils into chromosomes

  • Nucleus dissolves spilling the chromosomes

  • Spindle fibers form


Metaphase
Metaphase

  • 2nd stage of mitosis

  • Spindle fibers attach to centromeres of each chromosome

  • Spindle fibers pull the chromosomes to the cell’s equator


Anaphase
Anaphase

  • 3rd stage of mitosis

  • Spindle fibers pull ½ the chromatids to each end of the cell

    • Humans: 46 chromatids each way


Telophase
Telophase

  • 4th stage of mitosis

  • Spindle fibers dissolve

  • Chromatids unwind into chromatin

  • Nucleus reforms

  • Cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm



Name that stage
Name that Stage!

Metaphase


Name that stage1
Name that Stage!

Telophase


Name that stage2
Name that Stage!

Interphase




Mitosis

Prophase

Metaphase

Interphase

Telophase

Anaphase


Quick review
Quick Review

  • Mitosis = the division of somatic (non-sex) cells

  • Each stage has different characteristics

  • End Result = Two identical diploid cells