Phylum PoriferaSponges By: Danielle Marvin
Key Characteristics • Feed by filtration • Have unique cell type not found in other animal phyla (the Collar Cell) • Tissues are loosely organized • Possess no internal organs • Have an internal meshwork of tiny fibers that acts like a skeleton
Anatomy • Has two outer layers • Layers separated by a single-cell gel layer called the mesohyl • Supportive needles/fibers in gel layer • No internal organs • None possess a backbone
Digestion • No formal digestion system • Draw water in through pores • Brings it into central cavity lined with flagellum that keeps a current flowing • Food is captured by a ring of tentacles • Food is digested or moved into middle layer of body to be digested.
Respiration • Have no formal respiration system. • Draw water in through pores • Use water to hydrate cells • Makes use of any food particles in the water • Releases water back out through pores
Internal Transport • Have no formal internal transport system. • Everything is moved through the pores with tiny fibers. • In Asconoid sponges, movement canals go straight through the body (hollow bodied) • In Synconoidsponges, canals are branched instead of straight • In Leuconoid sponges, canals are longer and more complicated, leading off to little chambers and eventually, an exit.
Excretion • Have no formal excretion system • Pass waste out through pores • Diffusion • Osmosis • Cell Transport
Response • Have no nervous system • Have no sensory organs • Have no immune system • Release poisons to protect selves • These poisons cause threatening sponge to stop reproducing cells • In all, they don’t respond much.
Movement • Swim in liquid as a baby sponge cell in the parent sponge • Move through parent’s pores into the water body • Float through the water until they settle on a surface (rock, other sponge, etc.) • Attach self to surface • Do not move again
Reproduction • Reproduce asexually • Most sponges have both female and male parts • Cell-like embryo is formed • Becomes a free-swimming creature inside of it’s parent sponge • Is pushed out of parent’s pores to become it’s own sponge.
Examples • Chalina (Mermaid’s Gloves) • Hippospongia (Horse Sponge) • Euplectella (Japanese Bridal Gift) • Hyalonema (Glass Rope Sponge) • Scypha (Crown Sponge)
Facts • Over 5,000 species • 2% are freshwater • Smallest sponge can be only a millimeter tall at full growth height • Largest can be the size of a large wood barrel • One cubic centimeter of a sponge can filter over 20 liters of water in one day
Literature Cited • http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/porifera.html • http://www.ebiomedia.com/prod/BOsponges.html • http://cfcc.edu/rogers/courses/msc174/Lectures/Phylum%20Porifera.pdf • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/invertebrates/sponge/ • http://animals.about.com/od/sponge1/p/porifera.htm • http://www.infusion.allconet.org/webquest/PhylumPorifera.html • http://kboyer.weebly.com/uploads/2/8/6/2/2862577/adv_bio_unit_2-_porifera_fact_sheet.pdf • http://www.ceab.csic.es/~maldonado/2008-Maldonado%26Riesgo-SocCatBiol.pdf • http://thephylumporiferaproject.wikispaces.com/