Section 7-2 Cell Parts Your turn to teach!
How this is going to work: • You’re going to draw an organelle from the basket. • You are to use your book to create notes for your organelles. • Make a rough draft • Get it checked for content and accuracy by Ms. Pitt • Final draft onto an overhead.
Stellar Example Notes: Organelle: Nuclear Pore • Tiny holes in the nuclear envelope (membrane). • Allows for the passage of substances into and out of the nucleus. • Pores are breaks in the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the nucleus. • Passage way for genetic information to the endoplasmic reticulum. • This genetic info is used to create proteins based on the DNA sequence in the nucleus.
Cytoskeleton • Eukaryotes cells contain a meshwork of protein, fibers, collectively called the cytoskeleton • Provides structural support • Helps regulate cellular activities by transmitting signals from the surface to the inside • 3 main kinds of fiber: microfilaments, the thinnest; microtubulus, the thickest; intermediate filaments, in between thickness Andrew Brommer
Cytoplasm • Semi fluid portion of the cell outside of the nucleus, another name for it is cytosol. • It’s inside the cell membrane- But, outside of the nucleus • It works along with the nucleus in the business of life. It is the medium that sends messages between the nucleus. • Interior of both the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Annie Kruzinski
Mitochondria Nearly all eukaryotic cells, including plants, contains Mitochondria. They are organelles that convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use. Enclosed by outer and inner membrane. Mitochondria come from cytoplasm of the ovum or egg cell; that you inherit from your mother’s egg. Allison Doluisio
Nucleus • Nucleus is the control center of a cell • It contains nearly all of the cells DNA and with it is coded instructions for making proteins • Nucleus controls protein synthesis in the cytoplasm by sending molecular messengers in the form of RNA
Nucleus • The RNA then conveys the genetic message to the cytoplasm an RNA molecule attaches to ribosome's where genetic message is translated into primary structure of a protein • Liz Roberts
Chloroplasts • Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. • Chloroplasts are the biological equivalents of solar power plants. • Surrounded by 2 membranes. • Inside the organelle are large stacks of other membranes, which contain the green pigment chlorophyll.
Chloroplasts • Contains its own genetic information in the form of small DNA molecules, and this led to the idea that they have descended from microorganisms. This idea is called endosymbiotic theory.
Ribosomes • Ribosomes are small particles of RNA and proteins throughout the cytoplasm, and outside the rough endoplasmic reticulum • They produce proteins by following a coded instruction provided by the nucleus, the control center of the cell • The human liver has a few million ribosomes • Free ribosomes are suspended throughout the cytoplasm, bound ribosomes are attached to the membroneus network called the endoplasmic reticulum
Flagella • Believed to have evolved from symbiotic bacteria • Usually limited to one per cell • Measure from 10 to 200 um in length • Function: mostly for the movement of cells Ex: a sperm cells tail that wiggles around to help the sperm swim around in the body
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulam • The name refers to the appearance of this organelle • One of the main functions is to make more membrane that surrounds other organelle and cell membrane • The other main function this proteins that will be transported to other organelle or secreted by the cell • Ex of secretary protein is insulin.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • Unlike rough ER, smooth ER has no ribosomes in its surface, hence its name. • Its central purpose is to make lipids • Detoxifies drugs and other harmful substances
Nucleolus • The nucleolus is where the assembly of ribosome's begins. (Main function) • It is a little sphere inside the center of the nucleus. • The ribosome’s pass through the nuclear poles of the cytoplasm. • The nucleolus is roughly spherical, and through a microscope it looks very dense. • Once in the cytoplasm, an mRNA molecule attaches to ribosome’s where genetic message is translated.
Centrioles • Located near the nucleus. • Helps with cell division. • Composed of a ring of 9 microtubule triplets. • Anchor fibers during cell division
Vacuoles • It stores materials such as water , salts protein, and carbs. • A saclike structure • The pressure of the central vacuole in these cells make it possible for plants to support heavy structures such as leaves and flowers. • In many plants the vacuole is a single, large central vacuole filled with liquid
Vacuoles • Contractile Vacuole: Keeps cells up right with water. • Also found in unicellular organisms and some animals.
Golgi Body (Apparaus) • Discovered by the Italian scientist Camillo Golgi. • Materials come from the E.R. and transport to the Golgi Body. • Golgi Body modifies, sorts, and packages protein and other materials. • From that point like “UPS” the Golgi Body ships the materials to the different destinations.
Lysosomes • Small organelles filled with enzymes. • One function of lysosomes is to break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins the that cell can use. • Destroy old, unusable cell parts. • Remove “junk” from the cell • If the lysosomes don’t work well then you could get diseases such as Tay-Sachs.
Nuclear Envelope • Is composed of two membrane. • It is dotted with thousands of nuclear pores. • Regulates what can enter and exit the nucleus. • Protects the DNA of the cell.