Chernobyl disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chernobyl disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history

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  1. Chernobyl disasterThe worst manmade disaster in human history Czech Technical University In Prague 23May 2007

  2. Where is Chernobyl? Czech Technical University in Prague

  3. Built in 1978-1979 Chornobyl Chernobyl Czech Technical University in Prague

  4. Czech Technical University in Prague

  5. Background • Reaktor Bolshoy Moshehnosty Kipyashiy • RBMK, a Russian acronym translated roughly means “reactor (of) high power (of the) channel (type)” • reactor cooled by water and moderated by graphite Czech Technical University in Prague

  6. Czech Technical University in Prague

  7. RBMK Reactor Czech Technical University in Prague

  8. Fuel assemblies Czech Technical University in Prague

  9. Czech Technical University in Prague

  10. Reactor Plant Scenario • As the reaction occurs, the uranium fuel becomes hot • The water pumped through the core in pressure tubes removes the heat from the fuel • The water is then boiled into steam • The steam turns the turbines • The water is then cooled • Then the process repeats Czech Technical University in Prague

  11. Day of disaster 25 April 1986 • 01:00 The preparation for the test • 13:47 Lowering of the reactor power halted at 1,600 MWt • 14:00 The ECCS was isolated • 23:10 The power reduction resumed Czech Technical University in Prague

  12. 26 April1986 • 24:00 Operation shift change • 24:28 Power level is now 500 MWt and kept decreasing to 30 MWt • 24:40 The operator withdrew some control rods • 01:00 Power had risen to 200MWt • 01:03 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the left loop of the system 200MWt • 01:07 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the right of the loop system - this was a violation of NOP Czech Technical University in Prague

  13. 26 April 1986 (cont.) • 01:19 Increased feed water flow to the steam drums and removed more control rods -violation of NOP • 01:23 The test was started • 01:23:10 Automatic rods withdrawn from the core • 01:23:21 Two groups of automated control rods were back to the core Czech Technical University in Prague

  14. 26 April 1986 (cont.) • 01:23:30 Power kept increasing • 01:23:40 Emergency button pushed • 01:23:44 Power is at 300000 MWth • 01:23:48 1st thermal explosion • 01:23:55 2nd explosion Czech Technical University in Prague

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  18. Isolation of the emergency core cooling system Unsafe amount of control rods withdrawn Connection of the four main cooling pumps to the right and left of the system Human Errors Czech Technical University in Prague

  19. Human Errors (cont.) • Mental model • The operator did not have a good mental model of the system itself • Overconfidence • By having an electrical engineer on site for an electrical test • No confirmation of cues obtained from the system • Beta too high • Many missed signals before the accident Czech Technical University in Prague

  20. Accident Prevention Czech Technical University in Prague

  21. System Analysis • Use of graphite as a moderator • Lack of a well-built containment structure • Inadequate instrumentation and alarms for an emergency situation • There were no physical controls that prevented the operators from operating the reactor in its unstable state Czech Technical University in Prague

  22. April 26, 1986: Chernobyl nuclear power plant Operator errors cause a reactor explosion Explosion releases 190 tons of radioactive gasses into the atmosphere Fire starts that lasts 10 days People: 7 million lived in contaminated areas; 3 million were children Wind: Carries radiation far distances Summary of Facts Czech Technical University in Prague

  23. Far Reaching Radiation Czech Technical University in Prague

  24. Radioactive fallout Czech Technical University in Prague

  25. 5.5 million people still live in contaminated areas 31 people died in 3 months of radiation poisoning 134 emergency workers suffered from acute radiation sickness 25,000 rescue workers died since then of diseases caused by radiation Cancer afflicts many others Increased birth defects, miscarriages, and stillbirths Direct Casualties Czech Technical University in Prague

  26. By the year 2000 there were 1800 case of thyroid cancer in children and adolescent High number of suicide and violent death among Firemen, policemen, and other recovery workers Indirect Casualties Czech Technical University in Prague

  27. Areas still impacted today: Soil Ground Water Air Food Crops Livestock Environment Impact Czech Technical University in Prague

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  33. The Sarcophagus After the disaster, a huge cement box was built around the radioactive material It is falling apart! According to a 2003 report by the Russian Atomic Energy Minister, Alexander Rumyantsev, "the concrete shell surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is in real danger of collapsing at any time." A new Sarcophagus is scheduled to be completed in 2009 Problems Today Czech Technical University in Prague

  34. Recommendations • Have proper Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for both normal and emergency situations • Have scheduled trainings and practices for normal and emergency situations Czech Technical University in Prague

  35. Recommendations (cont.) • Always have a reactor expert on site • Have operators confirm any cues from the system before making hypothesis or take action • Have a team work kind of environment such that every body is involved Czech Technical University in Prague

  36. Czech Technical University in Prague