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Behavioral Theory. Operant Conditioning - Skinner. All behaviors are accompanied by certain consequences and the consequences that follow behavior are either pleasant and desirable or adverse

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operant conditioning skinner
Operant Conditioning - Skinner
  • All behaviors are accompanied by certain consequences and the consequences that follow behavior are either pleasant and desirable or adverse
  • Voluntary responses of animals and humans are strengthened when they are reinforced and weakened when they are either ignored or punished
  • Assumes that while behavior appears on the surface to be random, it is governed by a set of laws
operant conditioning skinner3
Operant Conditioning - Skinner

Remove

Present

Negative Reinforcement

(Undesirable stimuli)

Positive Reinforcement

(Desired stimuli)

Strengthen behavior

Presentation Punishment

Type I

(Undesirable stimuli)

Weaken

behavior

Removal Punishment Type II

(Desired stimuli)

reinforcement
Reinforcement
  • Positive Reinforcement - Strengthen a target behavior by presenting a positive reinforcement after the behavior occurs; think of positive as "adding"; add stimulus to strengthen behavior
  • Negative Reinforcement - Strengthen a target behavior by removing an aversive stimulus after the behavior occurs; remove stimulus to strengthen behavior

Three procedures that reduce the probability of a particular behavior being repeated

  • Punishment - presentation of an averse stimulus such as scolding or spanking
  • Time-out - temporarily removing the opportunity to receive positive reinforcement
  • Extinction - behavior ceases as a result of withholding positive reinforcement
educational application skinner
Educational Application - Skinner
  • Be clear about what is to be taught

2. Teach first things first

3. Allow students to learn at their own rate

4. Program the subject matter

    • present small amounts of specially designed written material to the student in a predetermined sequence
    • provide prompts to draw out the desired response
    • call for the response to be repeated for mastery
    • immediately reinforce correct responses
behavior modification
Behavior Modification

Shape behavior by ignoring undesirable responses, reinforcing desirable responses.

Techniques:

  • Shaping
  • Token Economies
  • Contingency Contracting
  • Extinction, Time-out, and Response cost
  • Punishment
shaping
Shaping
  • Select the target behavior
  • Reinforce successive approximations of the target behavior each time they occur
  • Reinforce the newly established behavior each time it occurs
  • Reinforce the target behavior on a variable reinforcement schedule
token economy
Token Economy
  • A token is something that has little or no inherent value but can be used to "purchase" things that do have inherent value
  • A flexible reinforcement system used to strengthen behavior in the classroom
  • Effective in reducing behaviors, such as talking, being out of one's seat, and fighting
contingency contracting
Contingency Contracting
  • Use of a contract to agree on a mutually acceptable form of reinforcement

Extinction, Time-out and Response Cost

  • Use to weaken or eliminate undesirable behavior, by removal of the stimulus
social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • De-emphasizes the role of reinforcement in learning by attributing initial changes in behavior to the observation and imitation of a model
  • Also called Observational Learning
social learning theory bandura
Social Learning Theory - Bandura
  • Types of observational learning:
  • Inhibition
    • Learning NOT to do something because the model refrains from the behavior
  • Disinhibition
    • Learning to do something that is “normally” disapproved because the model does it without consequences, or with positive consequences
  • Facilitation
    • We are prompted to do something we normally wouldn’t do
    • The resistance to the action is lack of motivation, NOT social disapproval
  • True Observational Learning
    • Learning a NEW behavior pattern by watching someone else
processes in observational learning
Processes in Observational Learning

Students who have seen the behavior modeled are more likely to be successful and confident!!!

Attention - Effects of Observer-model Similarity

  • Children concerned about appropriateness of behavior, more likely to model peer's behavior
  • Children concerned about competence of peers will model the behavior of an adult
  • Children are more apt to model same sex models
  • Children with past learning problems more likely to model a peer who has overcome learning problems

Production -

  • Select and organize response elements
  • Refine response based on informative feedback
observational learning cont
Observational Learning (cont.)

Retention - (example of retention)

  • Jim is entering his pin number at the ATM machine; Susie is watching Jim enter the number, Bill is looking away politely
  • Susie observes that watching as someone enters their pin number is rude
  • Jim is entering his pin number; Susie and Bill are looking away

Motivation - Reinforcement

  • Direct: Individual watches model, imitates behavior, and is reinforced or punished by the model or someone else
  • Vicarious: Observer anticipates a reward for certain behavior because someone else has been so rewarded
  • Self: Individual strives to meet personal standards and does not care about the reactions of others
token economy15
Token Economy

Definition

A token economy is a flexible reinforcement system used to strengthen behavior in the classroom.

A token is something that has little or no inherent value but can be used to "purchase" things that do have inherent value.

Properties that a token should have in the classroom

1. Their value should be readily understood

2. They should be easy to dispense

3. They should be identifiable as property of a particular child

4. They should require minimal book keeping duties for the teacher

5. They should be dispensed in a manner which will divert as little attention as possible from academic matters

6. They should be dispensed frequently enough to insure proper shaping of desired behavior

Results

"A base rate of disruptive behavior was obtained for seven children in a second-grade class of 21 children. Rules, Educational Structure, and Praising Appropriate Behavior while Ignoring Disruptive Behavior were introduced successively; none of these procedures consistently reduced disruptive behavior. However, a combination of Rules, Educational Structure, and

Praise and Ignoring nearly eliminated disruptive behavior of one child. When the Token Reinforcement Program was introduced, the frequency of disruptive behavior declined in five of the six remaining children. Withdrawal of the Token Reinforcement Program increased disruptive behavior in these five children, and reinstatement of the Token Reinforcement Program reduced disruptive behavior in four of the five. Follow-up data indicated that the teacher was able to transfer control from the token and back-up reinforcers to the reinforcers existing within the educational setting, such as stars and occasional pieces of candy. Improvements in academic achievement during the year may have been related to the Token Program, and attendance records appeared to be enhanced during the Token phases. The Token Program was utilized only in the afternoon, and the data did not indicate any generalization of appropriate behavior from the afternoon to the morning."

  • These results show that token economies can work and do work in the classroom to reduce undesired behavior but the teacher can rely on the tokens for ever he or she at one point must remove the token and the student should continue the desired behavior.

WORKS CITED

Agras, Stewart. Behavior Modification: Principles and Clinical Applications. Little, Brown and Company Inc. New York, 1972.

Gentry, Doyle. ed. Applied Behavior Modification. Mosby Company. New York, 1975.

Mikulas, William. Behavior Modification an Overview. Harper and Row Publishers. New York, 1972.

O'Leary, K.D., et. al. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Vol. 2. P. 3-13, 1969.

bobo doll experiment bandura ross and ross 1963
Bobo Doll Experiment -Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963)

A control group of preschoolers

  • Watched no model

Three other groups of preschoolers

  • Watched Bobo doll being verbally and/or physically abused by either a live model, a filmed model, or a female dressed in a cat costume

All children allowed to play with attractive toys

Children then placed in a playroom with less attractive toys, including Bobo doll

  • Children were irritated at being removed from attractive toys; prone to aggression

Groups that witnessed the aggression showed aggression towards Bobo doll by modeling the behaviors witnessed

Group that did not witness aggression did not show aggression to Bobo doll

I. Operant conditioning: Instrumental conditioning also known as operant conditioning holds the belief that our actions are "instrumental" in producing whatever pleasant or painful consequences follow: a. II. Positive Reinforcement, b. Negative Reinforcement, c. Punishment (Time-out & Extinction)

Positive Reinforcement brings pleasant consequences,

a. Rewards: concrete rewards (money, toys, stickers, candy, etc.) and intangible rewards (affection, praise, attention, etc.)

b. E.L. Thorndike's Law of Effect

c. Positive reinforcement strengthens either by giving praise or recognition to the student after the behavior has occurred

III. Negative Reinforcement removes something unpleasant from the immediate situation.

a. This may be relief from pain or the removal of some barrier that is keeping us from obtaining something we want.

b. Negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by removing whatever barrier is in the way or causing us difficulty.

IV. When punishment occurs our tendency to repeat whatever action or behavior may have been is weakened.

a. Punishment may include spanking, scolding, to the removal of something pleasant.

b. Two types of punishment (Time-Out & Extinction)

c. E.L. THorndike's Law of Effect

Instrumental conditioning also know as operant conditioning holds the belief that our actions are "instrumental" in producing whatever pleasant or painful consequences follow. This learning approach by Skinner maintains that any action that is followed by some pleasant consequences or action that ends some unpleasant consequences or action that ends some unpleasant situation is strengthened or reinforced or it may be weakened or eliminated if punishment occurs. Therefore, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment will be briefly discussed below.

slide17
Positive reinforcement brings pleasant consequences. Pleasant consequences may include concrete rewards (money, toys, stickers, candy, etc.) and intangible rewards (affection, praise, attention, or the satisfaction that comes with having successfully completed a challenging task). E.L. Thorndike's Law of Effect states "that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by satisfying states of affairs (rewards)." With positive reinforcement a behavior is strengthened either by giving praise or recognition to the student after the behavior has occurred.

Negative Reinforcement removes something unpleasant from the immediate situation. This may be relief from pain, the ending of arguments or cries or the removal of some barrier that is keeping us from obtaining something we want. With negative reinforcement a behavior is strengthened by removing whatever barrier is in the way or causing us difficulty.

When punishment occurs our tendency to repeat whatever action or behavior may have been is weakened. Punishment may include any unpleasant consequence, from a spanking or a scolding to the removal of something pleasant such as not watching a favorite TV show or playing outside.

Two types of punishment are (1) Time-Out where a behavior is decreased or eliminated by temporarily removing the student from class participation, for example and (2) Extinction when responses that are not reinforced decrease in frequency or may even be eliminated such as ignoring. Thorndike's Law of Effect which contained two facets (1) in which rewards increase the likelihood of responses which preceded them and (2) punishments decreased the likelihood of responses which preceded them. Therefore, punishment either decreases or eliminates a particular behavior.

Bibliography

Hall, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Lois; Schell, Robert; & Scott, Paris (1988). Fifth Edition Developmental Psychology Today. McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Schwartz, barry (1978). Psychology of Learning & Behavior. New York: W.W.Norton and Company, Inc.

Walters, Gary C. & Grusec, Joan E. (1977). Punishment. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.

slide18

Violence Studies

Desensitization to Violence Study

Drabman and Thomas, 1974

Two groups; One group saw violent western movie; One group saw no movie

Forty-four boys and girls

Third and fourth graders

Children asked to babysit two younger children

Younger children displayed on the television

Two children showed highly aggressive behavior to one another

Babysitters actions

Group that had seen violent movie waited to go get an adult

Group that had not seen violent movie went to get adult immediately

Long range Effects of Television Violence Study

William Belson

Two groups; One group watched excessive amounts of television during childhood; One group watched below average quantities of television

1,565 teenage boys

Group that watched excessive television committed crimes, such as rape and assault 49% more often than other group

Group that watched below average amount television less likely to commit crimes

violence studies cont
Violence Studies (cont.)

Conclusions

  • Children who witness violent behavior on television are very likely to:
  • Imitate it
  • See it as normal
  • Commit various violent crimes
  • Television violence undoubtedly causes aggressive behavior in children

The basis behind the idea that media aggression will cause aggressive behavior in children is Bandura’s observational learning theory. Specifically, it is the idea that people, especially children, will model what they observe. In each of the above three studies, a group of children witnessed a model acting aggressively and not being punished for it, and another group of children saw no model. In each case, the children who had witnessed the aggressive behavior modeled it, while the children who had not witnessed the behavior did not act aggressively. In addition, Bandura conducted a number of variations of the Bobo Doll experiment which included rewards and punishment, and the results were virtually unchanged. Whatever the circumstances, the majority of children still modeled the aggressive behavior.

Bibliography

"Albert Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory." 4pp. Online. Internet. 4 April 1998.

Boeree, George C. "Albert Bandura." 4pp. Online. Internet. 7 April 1998.

"Does Violence on Television Cause Aggressive Behavior?" 6pp. Online. Internet. 4 April 1998.

Hummel, John. "Observational (Social) Learning." Educational Psychology Interactive: Observational Learning. 2pp. Online. Internet. 7 April 1998.

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