Behavioral Theory. Operant Conditioning - Skinner. All behaviors are accompanied by certain consequences and the consequences that follow behavior are either pleasant and desirable or adverse
Removal Punishment Type II
Three procedures that reduce the probability of a particular behavior being repeated
2. Teach first things first
3. Allow students to learn at their own rate
4. Program the subject matter
Shape behavior by ignoring undesirable responses, reinforcing desirable responses.
Extinction, Time-out and Response Cost
Students who have seen the behavior modeled are more likely to be successful and confident!!!
Attention - Effects of Observer-model Similarity
Retention - (example of retention)
Motivation - Reinforcement
A token economy is a flexible reinforcement system used to strengthen behavior in the classroom.
A token is something that has little or no inherent value but can be used to "purchase" things that do have inherent value.
Properties that a token should have in the classroom
1. Their value should be readily understood
2. They should be easy to dispense
3. They should be identifiable as property of a particular child
4. They should require minimal book keeping duties for the teacher
5. They should be dispensed in a manner which will divert as little attention as possible from academic matters
6. They should be dispensed frequently enough to insure proper shaping of desired behavior
"A base rate of disruptive behavior was obtained for seven children in a second-grade class of 21 children. Rules, Educational Structure, and Praising Appropriate Behavior while Ignoring Disruptive Behavior were introduced successively; none of these procedures consistently reduced disruptive behavior. However, a combination of Rules, Educational Structure, and
Praise and Ignoring nearly eliminated disruptive behavior of one child. When the Token Reinforcement Program was introduced, the frequency of disruptive behavior declined in five of the six remaining children. Withdrawal of the Token Reinforcement Program increased disruptive behavior in these five children, and reinstatement of the Token Reinforcement Program reduced disruptive behavior in four of the five. Follow-up data indicated that the teacher was able to transfer control from the token and back-up reinforcers to the reinforcers existing within the educational setting, such as stars and occasional pieces of candy. Improvements in academic achievement during the year may have been related to the Token Program, and attendance records appeared to be enhanced during the Token phases. The Token Program was utilized only in the afternoon, and the data did not indicate any generalization of appropriate behavior from the afternoon to the morning."
Agras, Stewart. Behavior Modification: Principles and Clinical Applications. Little, Brown and Company Inc. New York, 1972.
Gentry, Doyle. ed. Applied Behavior Modification. Mosby Company. New York, 1975.
Mikulas, William. Behavior Modification an Overview. Harper and Row Publishers. New York, 1972.
O'Leary, K.D., et. al. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Vol. 2. P. 3-13, 1969.
A control group of preschoolers
Three other groups of preschoolers
All children allowed to play with attractive toys
Children then placed in a playroom with less attractive toys, including Bobo doll
Groups that witnessed the aggression showed aggression towards Bobo doll by modeling the behaviors witnessed
Group that did not witness aggression did not show aggression to Bobo doll
I. Operant conditioning: Instrumental conditioning also known as operant conditioning holds the belief that our actions are "instrumental" in producing whatever pleasant or painful consequences follow: a. II. Positive Reinforcement, b. Negative Reinforcement, c. Punishment (Time-out & Extinction)
Positive Reinforcement brings pleasant consequences,
a. Rewards: concrete rewards (money, toys, stickers, candy, etc.) and intangible rewards (affection, praise, attention, etc.)
b. E.L. Thorndike's Law of Effect
c. Positive reinforcement strengthens either by giving praise or recognition to the student after the behavior has occurred
III. Negative Reinforcement removes something unpleasant from the immediate situation.
a. This may be relief from pain or the removal of some barrier that is keeping us from obtaining something we want.
b. Negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by removing whatever barrier is in the way or causing us difficulty.
IV. When punishment occurs our tendency to repeat whatever action or behavior may have been is weakened.
a. Punishment may include spanking, scolding, to the removal of something pleasant.
b. Two types of punishment (Time-Out & Extinction)
c. E.L. THorndike's Law of Effect
Instrumental conditioning also know as operant conditioning holds the belief that our actions are "instrumental" in producing whatever pleasant or painful consequences follow. This learning approach by Skinner maintains that any action that is followed by some pleasant consequences or action that ends some unpleasant consequences or action that ends some unpleasant situation is strengthened or reinforced or it may be weakened or eliminated if punishment occurs. Therefore, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment will be briefly discussed below.
Negative Reinforcement removes something unpleasant from the immediate situation. This may be relief from pain, the ending of arguments or cries or the removal of some barrier that is keeping us from obtaining something we want. With negative reinforcement a behavior is strengthened by removing whatever barrier is in the way or causing us difficulty.
When punishment occurs our tendency to repeat whatever action or behavior may have been is weakened. Punishment may include any unpleasant consequence, from a spanking or a scolding to the removal of something pleasant such as not watching a favorite TV show or playing outside.
Two types of punishment are (1) Time-Out where a behavior is decreased or eliminated by temporarily removing the student from class participation, for example and (2) Extinction when responses that are not reinforced decrease in frequency or may even be eliminated such as ignoring. Thorndike's Law of Effect which contained two facets (1) in which rewards increase the likelihood of responses which preceded them and (2) punishments decreased the likelihood of responses which preceded them. Therefore, punishment either decreases or eliminates a particular behavior.
Hall, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Lois; Schell, Robert; & Scott, Paris (1988). Fifth Edition Developmental Psychology Today. McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Schwartz, barry (1978). Psychology of Learning & Behavior. New York: W.W.Norton and Company, Inc.
Walters, Gary C. & Grusec, Joan E. (1977). Punishment. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Desensitization to Violence Study
Drabman and Thomas, 1974
Two groups; One group saw violent western movie; One group saw no movie
Forty-four boys and girls
Third and fourth graders
Children asked to babysit two younger children
Younger children displayed on the television
Two children showed highly aggressive behavior to one another
Group that had seen violent movie waited to go get an adult
Group that had not seen violent movie went to get adult immediately
Long range Effects of Television Violence Study
Two groups; One group watched excessive amounts of television during childhood; One group watched below average quantities of television
1,565 teenage boys
Group that watched excessive television committed crimes, such as rape and assault 49% more often than other group
Group that watched below average amount television less likely to commit crimes
The basis behind the idea that media aggression will cause aggressive behavior in children is Bandura’s observational learning theory. Specifically, it is the idea that people, especially children, will model what they observe. In each of the above three studies, a group of children witnessed a model acting aggressively and not being punished for it, and another group of children saw no model. In each case, the children who had witnessed the aggressive behavior modeled it, while the children who had not witnessed the behavior did not act aggressively. In addition, Bandura conducted a number of variations of the Bobo Doll experiment which included rewards and punishment, and the results were virtually unchanged. Whatever the circumstances, the majority of children still modeled the aggressive behavior.
"Albert Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory." 4pp. Online. Internet. 4 April 1998.
Boeree, George C. "Albert Bandura." 4pp. Online. Internet. 7 April 1998.
"Does Violence on Television Cause Aggressive Behavior?" 6pp. Online. Internet. 4 April 1998.
Hummel, John. "Observational (Social) Learning." Educational Psychology Interactive: Observational Learning. 2pp. Online. Internet. 7 April 1998.