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Argumentation Skills-1 . What's the Point of Arguing? . Not stating prejudices in a new form. Not disputation . An argument is not simply a statement of certain views , and it is not simply a dispute .

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what s the point of arguing
What's the Point of Arguing?
  • Not stating prejudices in a new form.
  • Not disputation.
  • An argument is notsimply a statement of certainviews, and it is notsimply a dispute.
  • " Togive an argument" meanstooffer a set of reasonsorevidencesin support of a conclusion.
  • Argumentsareattemptstosupportcertainviewswithreasons.
why arguments are essential
Why arguments are essential ?
  • Inquiry: A way of trying to find out which views are better than others.
  • Defend/Explain: Once onearrived at a conclusion that is well-supported by reasons, argument is how we explain and defend it.
understanding argumentative essays
Understanding Argumentative Essays
  • At Highschool: Learning fairlyclear-cutanduncontroversialsubjects. Papersonlyneedtoreportthem.
  • At Yaşar University: Theissuesareoftennotsoclear-cutandcertain. Requirestudentstoquestiontheirbeliefsandtoworkoutanddefendtheirownviews.Askedtolearntothinkforthemselves, to form theirownviewsin an orderlyway. Theabilitytodefendviewsis a measure of thatskill, andthat is whyargumentativeessaysaresoimportant.
composing a short argument some general rules
Composing a Short Argument- Some General Rules

1)Distinguish premises ( önkabul/ varsayım) and conclusion: Theconclusion is thestatementforwhichyougivereasons. Thestatementswhichgiveyourreasonsare ‘premises’.

2) Present your ideas in a natural order: Eachclaimshouldleadnaturallytothenext.

3) Start from reliable premises: No matter how wellyouarguefrompremisestoyourconclusion, it will be weakifyourpremisesareweak.

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4) Be concrete and concise; Avoidabstract, vague, general terms.

5)Avoid loaded language: Do not makeyourargumentlookgoodbydemonizingtheoppositingside. Bewarevalue-laden wording.

6) Stick to one meaning for each term: Sexesarethe ‘equal’ sothelawshould not pretendthatweare ‘equal’.

7) Use consistent terms: Stick to a single set of terms to have connection between premises.

arguments by example in support for generalization
Arguments by Example (in support for generalization)

8)Give more than one example: A singleexampleoffersnosupportforgeneralization.Could be atypicalcase.

9) Use representative examples: Even a largenumbermaymisrepresentthe set beinggeneralized. Sampling is thekey.

arguments from authority sometimes risky
ArgumentsfromAuthority (sometimesrisky !)

13) Sourcesshould be cited: 1) Reliability 2) Allowthereadertofind on her/his own

14) Seekinformedsources: Must be qualifiedtomakethestatementstheymake.

15) Personal attacks do not disqualify a source: Not necessarly fit our general sterotype of ‘an authority’.

16 cross check sources
16) Cross-checksources

Beforeyouquoteanypersonororganization as an authority, youshouldchecktomake sure thatotherequallyqualified/impartialauthoritiesagree.

Meaning do not soleyrely on governmentalsources !!!

arguments about causes
ArgumentsaboutCauses

To be continued