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  1. Мозаика презентаций ANCIENT GREEK IDIOMS МОУ Информационно-технологический лицей № 24 г. Нерюнгри Республика САХА (Якутия) ИВАНОВА НАТАЛЬЯ ВИКТОРОВНА учитель английского языка

  2. What is an idiom? An idiom(Greek:ἰδίωμα – idiōma, "special feature, special phrasing”) is a combination of words that has a figurative meaning owing to its common usage. An idiom's figurative meaning is separate from the literalmeaning. The English language is rich of idiomatic expressions. English idioms present a great variety of constructions and combinations which are mostly unchangeable and may not follow basic rules of grammar.

  3. The origin of Greek idioms Throughout the centuries, English was been greatly influenced by other languages. English, as we know it today, has a lot of words of Greek origin. They Came from ancient Greek myths, Homer’ poems, Aesop's and Phaedra’s fables, etc. There are a lot of Greek idiomatic expressions which are unmistakably graceful sophisticated and they are very widely used in modern written and spoken English.

  4. Ariadne’s string • - it is something that helps you find a way out of the predicament, in other words it is a guiding thread. • In Greek mythology, Ariadne was the daughter of King Minos and of his queen, Pasiphae. She fell in love with the Athenian hero Theseus when he came to Crete. Theseus was one of a group of youths and maidens who were to be fed to the Minotaur. Half bull and half man, the Minotaur was kept in a maze called the Labyrinth. Before Theseus entered it, Ariadne helped him by giving him a ball of string. Theseus succeeded in killing the Minotaur and escaping. He used the string and could find his way to leave the Labyrinth. Ariadnethen fled with Theseus when he sailed back to Athens.

  5. Pandora’s box • - a source of many unforeseen troublesand disasters. In Greek mythology, Pandora was the woman who brought evil into the world and caused humankind's downfall. • She was sent to earth by Zeus, who wanted to take revenge on the Titan Prometheus. Pandora brought with her a sealed jar or box as a gift from the gods.There were disease, old age, poverty, evil, war, and the other illnesses inside that box. All of • these could plague humans ever since. When the box was opened, they flew out into the world, leaving only Hope at the bottom of the box to give people a scrap of comfort. A few accounts say that the box contained all the good things that Prometheus had planned to give the human race, but when Pandora gave in to curiosity and opened the box, she let all the blessings escape.

  6. Golden Fleece • - this is gold, riches that everybody • tries to master. One of the best-known stories in Greek mythology concerns the hero Jason and his quest for the Golden Fleece. The fleece, which came from a magic ram, hung in a sacred grove of trees in the distant land of Colchis. After many adventures, Jason and the Argonauts reached Colchis. However, King Aeëtes refused to give up the Golden Fleece unless Jason could harness two fire-breathing bulls for plowing, plant dragons' teeth in the ground, and defeat the warriors that sprang up from the teeth. Aeëtes had a daughter, Medea, who was a sorceress. She fell in love with Jason and helped him to accomplish these tasks. Medea also helped Jason to steal the Golden Fleece by charming the serpent that guarded it and putting the creature to sleep. Jason, Medea, and the Argonauts then set sail for Iolcus with the fleece.

  7. Augean stables - this is a very dirty place, usually room where everything is in a mess; - something that is in serious disrepair, in disarray etc. It is usually about some organization or total mess in the conducting of affairs. • Hercules was the greatest hero of the Greek world, known for his feats of strength. The stables, which belonged to KingAugeas, housed a large herd of cattle and had not been cleaned for years. Hercules was ordered to clean out these filthy stalls. He did so by diverting the course of two rivers so that they flowed through the stables and cleaned all stables. It was the fifth Hercules’s feat.

  8. The fire of Prometheus • the spirit of generosity, courage, unquenchable aspiration to achieving high goals. • The expression comes from Greek mythology. One of the titans, Prometheus stole fire from the Gods and taught people to use it. Angered Zeus ordered Hephaestos to chain the titanium to the rock where the eagle flew every day to eat the liver of Prometheus. Then Hercules setPrometheus free.

  9. To saddle Pegasus - is it the same as Fly Helikon means to be a poet; - feel the rush of inspiration. A winged horse in Greek mythology, Pegasus was supposedly the offspring of the sea god Poseidon and the Gorgon Medusa. According to the legend, Pegasus was born from the blood spilled from Medusa's neck when the hero Perseus had killed her. Pegasus served Perseus until his death and afterward went to the home of the Muses. The water that gave the Muses their inspiration had dried up, so Pegasus stamped his hoof and created a springto give inspiration for poets.

  10. Homeric laughter - it is loud, long or uncontrollable laughing. Homer is a famous ancient Greek poet. He is the author of poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. The heroes of these poems were gods who had extraordinary qualities. They were strong, courageous, resourceful, and had a powerful voices, their laughter was like peals of thunder. Homeric laughter is very loud, uncontrollable laughter.

  11. Trojan Horse • - any person, group, or thing that seeks to subvert a nation, organization, etc. from within Expressions originated from Greek myths about the Trojan War. Greeks, after a long and unsuccessful siege of Troy, resorted to a trick: they built a huge wooden horse and left it at the walls of Troy, and they pretended to drift away from the shore of Troas. The priest Laocoon, seeing this horse and knowing the Greeks’ actions, exclaimed: “Whatever it is, I am afraid of the Greeks even if they give gifts!” But Trojans did not listen to Laocoon’s warnings and Cassandra’s prophetess, they dragged a horse in a city. At night the Greeks, hidden inside the horse, went out and killed the guards, opened the city gates, and let returning Greek comrades in and thus possessed of Troy.

  12. The torments of Tantalus -it is suffering from the consciousness of close location to the desired goal and the inability to achieve it. In Greek mythology, Tantalus, king of Lydia, was the son of Zeus. A favorite of the gods, he was often invited to dine at their feasts. But Tantalus angered the gods. Some stories say that he betrayed their secrets to mortals, while others claim that he stole the food of the gods. Another myth gives a more gruesome explanation, saying that Tantalus killed his son Pelops and served the flesh to the gods to prove they could not find the difference between human and animal meat. To punish Tantalus, the gods placed him in a pool of water in the underworld that was surrounded by fruit trees. When he went to drink, the water would recede. When he tried to eat the fruit, it moved out of reach. Tantalus's punishment gave rise to the word tantalizing, meaning something that is tempting but just out of reach.

  13. Aesopian language Having a hidden meaning; a special type of cryptographic or allegorical writing used in literature, criticism, and journalism in order to circumvent censorship when such literary activity is denied freedom of expression. Aesop is a legendary ancient Greek fabulist, who lived, according to legend, in the VI century BC. He was a slave, so he didn’t havea right to speak freely and openly about many things. It was a dangerous thing those days. Aesop was forced to use circumlocutions in the form of a fable to express his thoughts. His tales were very popular. The ability to speak or express your thoughts in allegories, parables received the name of the Aesopian language.

  14. Danaides barrel -it is useless, endless and ineffective work. In Greek mythology, the Danaids (or Danaides) were the fifty daughters of Danaus, King of Argos. Onthe command of their father they married the fifty sons of Aegyptus and had to kill them on their wedding nights. Everybody, except Hypermnestra who was a wife of Lynceus, fulfilled their father's bloody order. • As punishment, the Danaids were dispatched to Hades where they were condemned toeverlastingly pour water into a bottomless barrel.

  15. Achilles heel -this idiom refers to the weakness of something despite an overall strength. It’s origins reside in Greek mythology whereby the Greek champion Achilles is defeated by a poisoned arrow that wounds him in the heel. Achilles had a reputation of strength and invincibility, and such virtues was given him by his mother Thetiswho had dipped him in the Styx river when he was young.  Unfortunately when she did so, he was held by the heel which rendered a single weak spot not covered by the mystical power of the water.

  16. Horn of plenty – to be in huge quantity, inexhaustibility The cornucopia, a curved horn with fruits and flowers spilling from its open mouth, is a common symbol of abundance and the earth's bounty. The symbol's origin lies in Greek mythology. Legend says that Zeus, the king of the gods, was raised by a foster mother named Amalthaea, who was either a goat or a goddess. She fed the infant god goat's milk. One day one of the goat's horns broke off. Amalthaea filled the horn with fruits and flowers and gave it to Zeus, who graciously placed it in the sky, where it became a constellation.

  17. GorgonMedusa’s gaze If a person is unpleasant and nobody likes him, it is often said that he has a Medusa Gorgon’s gaze. InGreek mythology Medusa Gorgon was a monster, generally described as having the face of a hideous woman with living venomous snakes instead of hair. If you looked directly at her eyes you would turn into a stone. Most sources describe her as the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto. Medusa was beheaded by the hero Perseus. Thereafter he used her head as a weapon until he gave it to the goddess Athena. Then  Athena placed it on her shield.

  18. The apple of discord • - a reason for an argument ora quarrel A golden apple, stolen from Hera's garden, was caused the Trojan War, and it was one of the key events in Greek mythology. Eris, the goddess of discord,was angry for not to be included among the gods asked to attend a wedding feast. Arriving to the wedding, she threw the apples, addressed to “The most beautiful“, onto the table of the feast. Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite • thought that this apple was for her. They asked Paris, a prince of Troy, to solve this problem, and he awarded the apple to Aphrodite. In revenge, Hera and Athena supported the Greeks in the war that led to the fall of Troy.

  19. Tohurlthunderbolt • - to speak angrily, irritably, rebuking, denouncing anyone or threatening him Zeus was the king of all the gods. He had many magical powers. He could shape shift and make himself look like anybody. He could throw his lightning bolts and do all kinds of damage. He could throw his voice and make himself sound like anybody.  He also had powers that came from being king of all the gods. He could give titles and jobs to other gods. And he could take those titles and jobs away. He could direct other gods, like any leader, to do things. His was an elected position. There were 12 gods on the council. They could have voted another king but they never did so. And Zeus never retired. 

  20. To sing the dithyramb to praise someone or something with enthusiasm The dithyramb was anancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god. In ancient Greece were competitions between groups singing and dancing dithyrambs which were an important part of Dionysiac festivals such as the Dionysia and Lenaia. Dithyrambs were composed on episodes from myths of other gods, and the arrangement in matched strophes came to be relaxed. Dithyrambs were performed by a large chorus of singers, possibly dressed as satyrs with flute accompaniment.

  21. Labour of Sisyphus The phrase "labor of Sisyphus" refers to any hopeless task that must be repeated endlessly. The expression comes from the ancient Greek legend of Sisyphus, known as a sly person who constantly conflicted with gods. Furious, Zeus sent Thanatos to take Sisyphus to Hades. The clever Sisyphus managed to tie up Thanatos, and for days no one on earth died. • As punishment for tricking the gods, Sisyphus was placed on a hillside in the underworld with a heavy boulder above him. To escape being crushed, he had to push the boulder uphill. The gods told him that if he rolled the stone to the other side they would release him. Each time he reached the top, the boulder rolled back down to the bottom, forcing Sisyphus to start over.

  22. Between Scylla and Charybdis You are in such a situation when danger threatened from two sides. Synonyms: between the hammer and the anvil, between two fires.. • In Greek mythology, Scylla and Charybdis were a pair of monsters who lived on opposite ends of the MessinaStrait between Italy and Sicily. Scylla was originally a sea nymphwho was loved by the sea god Poseidon. Out of jealousy, Poseidon's wife Amphitrite poisoned the waters in which Scylla was bathing. This turned Scylla into a • six-headed beast with three rows of sharp teeth in each head. When • ships passed close by her, she grabbed them and ate unwary sailors. • Charybdis was also a sea nymph. Zeus transformed her into a • dangerous whirlpool across the strait from Scylla. Ships sailing the • strait were almost certain to be destroyed by • one of the monsters.

  23. Themis’s Scales It is synonym of justice and fairness. Themis the Greek Goddess was one of the ancient Titans. She was the Greek Goddess of divine justice, order and customs. In this role she sat in judgment of the recently deceased and decided whether they were sent to Tartarus or the Elysian Fields. This Goddess also had the ability to foresee the future. Themis is often shown as a blind woman holding the scales of justice. 

  24. Penelope’s shroud - it is a sophisticated trick The wife of the hero Odysseus Penelope was known for her faithfulness, patience, and feminine virtue. During her husband’s absent, Penelope received the attentions of many suitors. • She put them off by saying that she would get marriage only after she would have finished weaving a shroud for her father-in-law, Laertes, who was grieving over Odysseus's absence. Each day Penelope wove the cloth, but at night she secretly unraveled her work. After three years, a servant revealed Penelope's secret, and she had to finish the shroud. When her suitors became insistent again, Odysseus arrived home and then killed all of them.

  25. Pygmalion and Galatea - it means passionate love without reciprocity. In Greek mythology, Pygmalion was a king of the Cyprus island and a sculptor. He spent many years carving an ivory statue of a woman more beautiful than any living female, but he openly expressed his contempt for women. • Infuriated by this, the goddess Aphrodite made him fall • in love with a statue of a young girl Galatea and condemned • him to the torment of unrequited love. He • pretended it was an actual woman. He • treated it as if it was alive. However, the • statue could not respond to his attentions, • and Pygmalion became miserable. • Finally, he prayed to Aphrodite, the • goddess of love, to bring the statue to • life.After all Pygmalion married this • woman.

  26. The Gordian knot The knot is symbolized an exceedingly complicated problem that is almost impossible to solve. "Cutting the Gordian knot" means solving acomplicated problem through bold action. In Greek mythology, the Gordian knot was an extremely complicated knot tied by Gordius, the king of Phrygia. According to legend, the knot was supposedly impossible to unravel. An oraclepredicted that it would be untied by the future King of Asia. Many individuals came to Gordium to try to undo the knot, but they all failed. Then the Greek conqueror Alexander the Great took out his sword and cut through the knot. Alexander then went on to conquerAsia, thus fulfilling the oracle's prophecy.

  27. Final test 1. You can find _________ in any difficult situations. • Ariadne’s string • The fire of Prometheus • Golden Fleece 2. Unfortunately, the reform opened __________ inside the country. • Augean stables • Pandora’s box • Danaides barrel 3. There was a terrible mess in his room like in __________. • Pandora’s box • Horn of plenty • Augean stables 4. I think John's fear of height is his ________. • Trojan Horse • Achilles' heel • The torments of Tantalus

  28. 5. Money became __________ for her family. • Danaides barrel • the apple of discord • GorgonMedusa’s gaze 6. I think Max _________ of the boss because he wanted to get a promotion. • had used Aesopian language • had found the Golden Fleece • had sung the dithyrambs 7. The managing director _______ knowing about poor financial situation of the company. • sang the dithyrambs • saddled Pegasus • hurled thunderbolt 8. Useless work without sense and purpose, which is a waste of time and effort, is ______. • labour of Sisyphus • the apple of discord • Homeric laughter 9. ______ means under physical or verbal attack from two or more sides simultaneously. • Between Scylla and Charybdis • The fire of Prometheus • The Aesopian language

  29. 10. Match the phrases with their definition. • Horn of plenty • Ariadne’s string • Labour of Sisyphus • Gorgon Medusa’s gaze • Achilles heel • Homeric laughter • Aesopian language • The torments of Tantalus • Augean stables • Pandora’s box Ящик Пандоры Муки Тантала Авгиевы конюшни Гомерический хохот Рог изобилия Взгляд МедузыГоргоны Нить Ариадны Сизифов труд Эзопов язык Ахиллесова пята e. Рог изобилия g. Нить Ариадны h. Сизифов труд f. Взгляд Медузы Горгоны j. Ахиллесова пята d. Гомерический хохот i. Эзопов язык b. Муки Тантала c. Авгиевы конюшни a. Ящик Пандоры