TO DO. Take out your textbook photocopy and cards. AIM: How was the world changing post-WWI?. Ms. McMillan Global IV March 20, 2012. Breakup of Austria-Hungary. See how Europe changed after WWI!. Breakup of the Ottoman Empire. Kemal Ataturk.
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Take out your textbook photocopy and cards
March 20, 2012
See how Europe changed after WWI!
Who: “Father of the Turks”, war hero, nationalist
Where: Turkey (old Ottoman Empire)
What: Westernized Turkey (clothing, education, calendar, alphabet), separated religion and government (secularism), made Turkey a republic, gave women rights, industrialized
Why: Wanted Turkey to be free of western rule and the sultan; wanted to be respected by the west (“civilized”), industrialized and modernized
WHO: Army officer; Shah of Iran
WHAT: Overthrew the shah and put himself in power. Built factories, roads and railroads, modernized and westernized, gave women rights.
WHY: Russia and Britain had spheres of influence in Iran, Khan wanted them out.
WHO: European powers and the Arab nations
WHERE: Arab world
WHAT: Territories controlled by European powers
WHY: European powers do not respect the sovereignty of Arab nations because they are not “civilized” like the west, or modernized.
WHO: Arab nations
WHERE: Arab world
WHAT: The movement to unite all Arab people
WHY: To free Arab nations of foreign control
In 1919 there were attacks on British citizens in Amristar, so public meetings were banned.
A large group of Indians assembled on April 13, and British troops fired on them without warning.
400 were killed; 1200 wounded
British rule MUST end!
WHO: Indian Nationalist
WHAT: Taught nonviolence and civil disobedience; led the Salt March and boycotts on British goods and products; rejected the caste system. Helped India gain independence in 1947 before he was assassinated.
WHY: He wanted to free India of British rule.
WHAT: Not obeying unjust laws (ie: Gandhi gathering salt from the sea when Britain had a monopoly on it)
WHY: To fix problems in society or change the laws
In the 1920s and 1930s, a leader named Mohandas Gandhi headed the Indian nationalist movement.
He taught non-violent resistance and civil disobedience were the way to win rights.
Used boycotting, and embraced ideas of democracy and nationalism.
Rejected the caste system and urged equal rights for all.
India achieved independence in 1947.
1 million Indians had served the Allies in WWI.
During the war, Britain promised India greater self-government.
After the war, Britain failed the fulfill these promises.
After WWI, China was in total disorder.
Sun Yixian stepped down, so rival warlords fought for power.
The economy collapsed, and peasants faced hardships.
Foreign powers increased their influence in China.
Protestors at the May Fourth Movement, dissatisfied with Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles for China.
WHO: Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)
WHAT: A nationalist group supported by middle class businessmen, who did little for the peasants. Fought the communist party in China during the civil war. They lost.
WHY: Sun Yixian (founder of Chinese Republic) stepped down and people in China fought for power. When Yixian died, Jieshi took over the Kuomintang.
WHO: The USA and the world
WHAT: US investors pulled money out of Europe, high tariffs on imported goods; nations that traded with the USA saw their economies collapse. People began questioning capitalism and democracy.
WHY: The American Stock Market crashed and it triggered the depression; global economic collapse
At first, Communists and Nationalists worked together to unite China.
Jiang Jieshi began to see Communists as a threat.
A civil war began between the two groups that would last 22 years!