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Unit 4. Inorganic Nomenclature. What We Hope to Learn This Unit. Identify the different types of ions and explain or describe each Identify the type of compound by its formula or name Identify and explain the major types of bonding (ionic and covalent)

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unit 4

Unit 4

Inorganic Nomenclature

what we hope to learn this unit
What We Hope to Learn This Unit
  • Identify the different types of ions and explain or describe each
  • Identify the type of compound by its formula or name
  • Identify and explain the major types of bonding (ionic and covalent)
  • Write the names and formula for ionic and covalent compounds, given appropriate charts or data tables
  • Write the names and formula for hydrates and acid compounds, given appropriate charts or data tables
element song
Element Song
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwPaqaQEuJw
4 1 the chemical elements an introduction and background information
4-1. The Chemical ElementsAn Introduction and Background Information

How do I know if it is an Element?

  • Element’s are easy to ID
    • The first letter in the symbol is ALWAYS in upper case (capitals)
    • Second letters (if present) are ALWAYS in lower case
  • Identify as a compound/molecule or element:

Fe HI ZnO

NaCl Cr Al

H CuF CO

slide5
How are symbols and names chosen for elements?
  • Greek or Latin
  • named after the person who discovered the element
  • after other famous scientists to honor that person
  • Named after the location it was discovered in…

Note that:

  • For many elements, the symbol is just the first letter (or first two letters) of the name of the element.
  • Note that the symbol for some elements is taken from the name in another language (Greek and Latin origins quite common) and is not the first two letters of the element's name in English.
slide6

Some Examples:

hydrogen, symbol H, is from the Greek words hudôr (water) and gennan (generate)

oxygen, symbol, O, is from the Greek words oxus (acid) and gennan (generate)

carbon, symbol C, is from the Latin carbo (coal)

lead, symbol Pb, is for plumbum, which is "lead" in Latin

gold, symbol Au, is for aurum, which is "gold" in Latin

curium, symbol Cm, after Pierre and Marie Curie for their contributions to chemistry (Curium was discovered by G. T. Seaborg)

lawrencium, symbol Lr, after Ernest Lawrence

berkelium, symbol Bk, after Berkeley, California where much research was done on discovering new elements

definitions
Definitions:
  • Anion = - charge
  • Cation = + charge
  • Monatomic = species with one atom
  • Diatomic = species with two atoms (same or diff)
  • Triatomic = species with three atoms (same or diff)
  • Polyatomic = general term to mean made up of many atoms (“poly” = more then one)
identifying the different components of a compound
Identifying the Different components of a Compound
  • The most important step in writing names and formulas is to ID the ions involved
slide11

Metals ALWAYS LOSE electron to become stable

Nonmetals ALWAYS GAIN electron to become stable

what are polyatomic ions pai
What are Polyatomic Ions (PAI)?
  • A polyatomic ion is usually a charged species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded
how do pai form
How do PAI form?
  • collection of atoms has gained or lost an electron in a chemical reaction.
  • extra electrons are shared by all the atoms in the PAI (sort of smeared around the atoms in the ion).
what does a formula mean
What does a formula mean?

Cu(NO3)2

- Subscripts

The subscripts say: there are 2- NO3 ions for every 1- Cu ion

  • The copper wants to get rid of 2 electrons and each NO3 ion can only accept 1 electron, so two are needed.
count up the of each atom cu no 3 2
Count up the # of each atom:Cu(NO3)2

Cu = 1

N = (2 x 1) = 2

O = (2x3) = 6

  • The subscript outside of a bracket is multiplies by each subscript inside of the bracket
  • If there is no subscript, assume “1”
ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTx_DWboEVs&feature=related
slide19

What happens when a metal has two electrons to get rid of the nonmetal can only accept one electron?

1 writing names for ionic compounds m s nm
1. Writing Names for Ionic Compounds(M (s)+ NM)

The rules are :

  • Write the first name as it appears on the PT
  • Write the root of the second name as it appears on the PT BUT change the ending to “IDE”

Li2S = Lithium sulphide

AlI3 = Aluminum Iodide

ZnO = Zinc Oxide

writing formulas for ionic compounds m s nm
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds(M (s)+ NM)

The rules are:

  • Identify the charges for each ion from the PT
  • CRISS CROSS charges to make subscripts
  • Reduce if possible
2 writing names for m v nm
2. Writing Names for (M (v)+ NM)

The Rules are:

  • Write the first name as it appears on the PT BUT you must indicate the charge used by including a ROMAN NUMERAL immediately after the metals name
  • To find out what charge was used, you must uncross the charges. If the nonmetals charge is right, then the charges were not reduced, and the charge on the metal will be the roman numeral to use
  • Write the root of the second name as it appears on the PT BUT change the ending to “IDE”
slide28
CuCl2
  • uncross the charges = Cu+2 and Cl-1
  • Cl is supposed to have a -1 charge
  • Name = copper(II) chloride

CuO

  • uncross the charges = Cu+1 and O-1
  • Oxygen is supposed to have a -2 charge, therefore the charges were reduced.
  • Multiply both charges by the same number to obtain the correct charge for the nonmetal. In this case multiply both by 2
  • Now the charges are Cu+2 and O-2
  • Name = copper(II) oxide
try these
Try these:
  • FeO
  • CrF
  • MnO2
try these1
Try these:
  • FeO

Iron(II) oxide

  • CrF3

Chromium(III) flouride

  • MnO2

Manganese(IV) oxide

writing formulas for m v nm
Writing Formulas for (M (v)+ NM)

The rules:

  • Identify the charge for the metal from the roman numeral
  • Identify the charge on the nonmetal from the PT
  • Criss- cross charges to make subscripts
  • Reduce if possible
slide32
copper(II) chloride

Copper(I) oxide

3 writing names for m s pai
3. Writing Names for (M (s)+ PAI)

The rules:

  • Write the metals name as it appears on the PT (the first capital letter)
  • Identify the name of the polyatomic ion from your data booklet
  • Write the name of the poly as it appears

Na2SO4 = sodium sulphate

KOH = potassium hydroxide

writing formulas for m s pai
Writing Formulas for (M (s)+ PAI)

The rules:

  • Identify the charges for each ion for the PT and the data booklet
  • Criss cross charges (never change the subscripts of the poly, do not use them as charges!)
  • Put brackets around the poly if there is a charge greater than 1 on the metal
  • The charge of the metal will stay on the OUTSIDE of the brackets
  • Reduce if possible
slide35
silver cyanide
  • sodium phosphate
4 writing names for m v pai
4. Writing Names for (M (v)+ PAI)

The rules:

  • Write the first name as it appears on the PT BUT you must indicate the charge used by including a roman numeral immediately after the metals name
  • Identify the name of the polyatomic ion from your data booklet
  • Write the name of the poly as it appears

Fe2(SO4)3 = iron(III) sulphate

Pd (ClO)2 = lead(II) hypochlorite

writing formulas for m v pai
Writing Formulas for (M (v)+ PAI)

The Rules:

  • Identify the charge for the metal from the roman numeral
  • Identify the charge on the poly from the Data booklet
  • Criss- cross charges to make subscripts
  • Use brackets if the charge on the metal is greater than 1
  • Reduce if possible
5 writing names for covalent compounds nm nm
5. Writing Names for Covalent Compounds(NM + NM)

The rules:

  • The subscript in front of each NM will be the GREEK PREFIX used

Mono = 1 Penta = 5 Nona = 9

Di = 2 Hexa = 6 Deca = 10

Tri = 3 Hepta = 7

Tetra = 4 Octa = 8

  • Look up the name of each NM from the PT, from the Greek prefix, place correct Greek prefix INFRONT of the NM’s name
  • Change the ending of the 2nd NM’s name to –ide
  • Do not use the word mono in front of the first NM’s name 
slide40
SO3 = sulphur trioxide
  • P2S3 = diphosphorus trisulphide
  • BrF = bromine monoflouride
writing formulas for covalent compounds nm nm
Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds(NM + NM)

The rules:

  • The Greek prefix in front of the NM’s name will tell you the subscript to use in front of that NM’s symbol
  • Do not criss cross these prefixes!!

Silicon tetraflouride = SiF4

Diphosphorus trisulphide = P2S3

Sulphur monoxide = SO

6 the nomenclature of hydrates
6. The Nomenclature of Hydrates
  • Hydrates are substances that include water into their formula.
  • The water is not actually part of the chemical substance and this is reflected in the way the formula is written.
  • Here is the example: CuSO4• 5 H2O
  • This formula means that for every one CuSO4 in the piece of this substance you are holding, there are also five water molecules.
  • No, the substance is not wet, it appears dry. There are some hydrates that have a wet appearance, but most appear perfectly dry to the eye and to the touch.
slide43
The dot IS NOT a multiplication sign.
  • Here is the name:

copper(II) sulfate• pentahydrate.

  • Notice penta meaning five and hydrate meaning water. Use this name both when writing the name or speaking it.
  • That means that when you hear "pentahydrate," you have to know to write the dot and then the 5 H2O.
slide44
Practice Problems

1) Suppose you heard "trihydrate." What would you write?

2) Suppose you heard "octahydrate." What would you write?

3) Name this substance: MgSO4• 9 H2O

4) Write the formula for: barium chloride dihydrate

hydrate problem answers
Hydrate Problem Answers

1) trihydrate = • 3 H2O

2) octahydrate = • 8 H2O

3) Magnesium sulfate nonahydrate

4) BaCl2• 2 H2O

7 acid nomenclature
7. Acid Nomenclature
  • Acids
    • Compounds that form H+ in water.
    • Formulas usually begin with ‘H’.
    • Exceptions: H2O, CH3COOH
acid nomenclature
Acid Nomenclature
  • HBr (aq)
  • H2CO3
  • H2SO3

hydrobromic acid

  • 2 elements, -ide
  • 3 elements, -ate

 carbonic acid

 sulfurous acid

  • 3 elements, -ite
slide50
Hydrofluoric acid
    • Starts with hydro-, binary
    • Ions = H + and F-
    • HF
  • Sulphuric acid
    • No hydro… means PAI present
    • -ic, was –ate, sulphate
    • Ions = H+ and SO4-2
    • H2SO4
  • Nitrous acid
    • -ous, was –ite, nitrite
    • Ions = H+ and NO2-
    • HNO2
name em
Name ‘Em!
  • HI (aq)
  • HCl
  • H2SO3
  • HNO3
  • HIO4
write the formula
Write the Formula!
  • Hydrobromic acid
  • Nitrous acid
  • Carbonic acid
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Hydrotelluric acid
naming exceptions 2 of many
Naming exceptions (2 of many)
  • Other naming exceptions:
    • HCN (hydrogen cyanide) and
    • H2S (hydrogen sulphide)
    • H20 (water, dihydrogen oxide)