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Friend-Foe Identification System. Justin Ayvazian Ben Johnson Eric Putney Michael Ruth Advisor: Professor Sandip Kundu. Project Overview and Motivation. Protect military personnel from hijacked friendly vehicles and hostile vehicles masquerading as friendly forces

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Friend foe identification system

Friend-Foe Identification System

Justin Ayvazian

Ben Johnson

Eric Putney

Michael Ruth

Advisor: Professor Sandip Kundu

Project overview and motivation
Project Overview and Motivation

  • Protect military personnel from hijacked friendly vehicles and hostile vehicles masquerading as friendly forces

    • Reliably and quickly identify ground vehicles

    • Encrypted wireless transmissions for security

    • Password user interface

    • Display information and track vehicles on intuitive GUI

Benefits over current and alternative systems
Benefits Over Current and Alternative Systems

  • Simultaneously and quickly handle multiple approaching vehicles

    • Not a data heavy transmission scheme

  • No physical hardware keys

    • Cannot steal the password

  • Data dependent encryption

    • Current system hacked by eavesdroppers

  • Vehicle tracking via GPS

System block diagrams
System Block Diagrams

Gray Blocks: Completed by CDR Red Blocks: Completed by FPR

From cdr
From CDR

  • Completed:

    • RC5 encryption integrated with software

    • Ethernet communication between DE2 Boards

    • User password interface

  • To be Implemented:

    • Integrate GUI and DE2 Boards

    • Bridge Wireless communication between modules

    • Implement GPS hardware

    • Timeout and multi-vehicle handling

      • 802.11 System Simulation Data

Updated hardware
Updated Hardware

  • Migration away from USB powered peripherals

    • Most USB products require O/S support for plug and play devices

  • Wireless Communication:

    • Quatech AirborneDirect™ Wireless Ethernet Bridge

    • Demo demonstrates 802.11b wireless connectivity

  • GPS Receiver:

    • San Jose Navigation EB-85A GPS Receiver

    • GPS Evaluation Board

    • RS232 connection for serial communication

Gps interfacing
GPS Interfacing

  • GPS Evaluation Board

    • RS-232 connection

  • EB-85A GPS Receiver

    • Geographic Position

      • NMEA Protocol

      • Eight minute Specificity

      • Baud Rate: 38400 bps

    • Changed from Holux GM-210 GPS Receiver

      • Required firmware drivers

Gps protocol and interfacing
GPS Protocol and Interfacing

  • GPS Module pushes NMEA sentences to board

    • GGA Sentence: $GPGGA,UTC,Lat,N/S,Lng,E/W,…

    • Comma delimited fields

  • Latitude Data: ddmm.mmmm

  • Longitude Data: dddmm.mmmm

  • Resolution: .0001/60 = 1.67 x 10^-6 degrees

  • GUI: 2 pixels = 1 m = X deg Lat, Y deg Lng

    • Prestore Base GPS, calculate difference in pixels between base and vehicle GPS to draw vehicle on GUI

Graphical user interface
Graphical User Interface

  • Issues:

    • Host computer to USB requires Plug-and-Play technology (operating system support)

    • JTAG Blaster only available communication method left for transmitting GPS coordinates to Google API

    • Unable to stream information over JTAG-Blaster

  • Corrections:

    • Custom made GUI

    • Use DE2 VGA protocols to stream to monitor

    • Stand alone system that requires no computer support

Wireless communication integration
Wireless Communication Integration

  • AirborneDirect™ Ethernet Bridge

    • Point-to-point wireless communication

    • 802.11 b/g compliant

    • Changed from Quatech WLNG-ET-DP501 WiFi Access Point

      • Incompatible serial connectors for DE2 integration

Updated message structure
Updated Message Structure

  • TCP/IP protocol used for packet transmission

    • Each message preceded by unencrypted TCP headers

    • Changed from UDP transmission

      • UDP not used by wireless bridges

  • Each packet payload transmitted will be 64 bits

    • Efficient for RC5 encryption scheme

    • Extra bits (where necessary) are randomly generated white noise for payload obfuscation.

  • Vehicle and base modules will have unique unencrypted IP address for routing and multi-vehicle handling

    • Allows base to throw out received TCP/IP packets not coming from a valid vehicle

    • Additional validation by cross-checking public and private IDs

Bandwidth considerations
Bandwidth Considerations

  • Transmitted data packets are 66 bytes

    • 8 byte payloads with 58 bytes of TCP/IP headers

    • Full conversation between vehicle and base is 462 bytes with appended TCP/IP headers

    • Assumes no collisions or lost messages

  • AirborneDirect Ethernet bridges have maximum bandwidth of 11 Mb/s

    • Must compete with all 802.11b devices in area

  • System can theoretically support hundreds of simultaneous conversations

    • Unable to physically test limit due to lack of hardware

Fpr team roles
FPR -Team Roles

  • Ben: RC5 encryption module and wireless communication

  • Mike: Packet composition and system implementation

  • Justin: GPS interfacing and system implementation

  • Eric: GUI and system implementation

Friend foe identification system

  • GPS coordinates updated to GUI in real-time

    • Updated GUI scheme, integrated with DE2 Boards

    • Communication between GPS and vehicle module, base module and GUI fully integrated

  • Fully functioning wireless protocol

    • Bridged ad-hoc point-to-point communication

    • Communication and encryption modules completed

  • Password interface and encoding integrated on DE-II

    • 16 binary switches for password value with push button to simulate password submission

    • Password randomization function implemented

    • Multi-Vehicle Lookup Tables completed

  • Timeouts implemented for multi-vehicle handling

Experience gained
Experience Gained

  • Classes most useful to this project:

    • ECE 242, ECE 353, ECE 354, ECE 374

  • Software used:

    • Quartus II, Nios II, Wireshark, Visual Studio C++

  • Interactions with the professional engineering community

  • System engineering design process

    • Concept to functional prototype

Outcome assessments
Outcome Assessments

  • A:

    • ECE 242 - RC5 encryption algorithm.

    • ECE 353 – Firmware programming and hardware interfacing.

    • ECE 354 - FPGA system programming and NiosII C-based application programming.

    • ECE 374 – Ad-hoc communication scheme implemented with TCP/IP protocol.

  • B:

    • Created a meaningful GUI output simulating GPS coordinates.

    • Simulated base GPS and Vehicle GPS to ensure that the vehicle was displayed in expected location on the GUI.

    • Decomposed NMEA messages to ensure coordinates obtained by the GPS module matched Google Maps

    • Analyzed raw GPS data and compared to previous known results to debug our GUI.

    • Wireshark used to decompose 802.11 packets for ethernet bridge integration and testing.

Outcome assessments1
Outcome Assessments

  • C:

    • I

      • Fast and reliable wireless communication up to one mile

      • Multi-Vehicle handling

      • Secure transmission scheme

      • Password interface that will attempt to prevent the vehicle from being able to be hijacked.

    • II

      • Prototype constrained to 100 meter range

      • Limited connection methods to DE2 boards

    • III

      • Developed simplified and secure password system that will prevent hijacked vehicles from being identified as friendly in all but the most extreme scenarios

Outcome assessments2
Outcome Assessments

  • D:

    • Justin Ayvazian (EE)

      • GPS unit integration

      • Decomposition of GPS messages and scaling for the GUI.

    • Ben Johnson (CSE)

      • Implementation of RC5 encryption algorithm

      • Configuration and integration of wireless Ethernet bridges.

    • Eric Putney (CSE)

      • System integration

      • Creation and updating of GUI

    • Mike Ruth (CSE)

      • Packet composition and decomposition

      • Creation and analysis of data messages.

    • All members worked together on the code that runs the vehicle and base modules. Each module consists of a state machine that runs and integrates all of the separate components. These state machines were a group effort.

Outcome assessments3
Outcome Assessments

  • E:

    • Outputting over the USB blaster would not be possible:

      • Alternative output GUI would need to be developed.

    • Done by designing our own GUI that would output over a VGA cable directly into a monitor.

    • Helped in making our system standalone which improved the system design.

Outcome assessments4
Outcome Assessments

  • F:

    • System reliability:

      • Safety of soldiers reliant on system

    • Exclusive testing was required

  • G:

    • Email and phone while apart

    • Vocally while together

Outcome assessments5
Outcome Assessments

  • H:

    • Prevention of Vehicle hijackings and bombings

      • Comfortable environment for soldiers and families

    • Negative consequences:

      • Mal-intent, deception, and destruction by terrorist groups

  • I:

    • RC5 Encryption

      • Encryption of wireless transmission data

    • NMEA protocol

      • Proper interfacing with GPS antenna

    • WiFi packet structure

      • Interfacing wireless Ethernet bridges

Outcome assessments6
Outcome Assessments

  • J:

    • Safety of soldiers

      • Eliminate threats at checkpoints

      • Saves lives

  • K:

    • Quartus

      • Compilation and Synchronization of DE2 Boards

    • NIOS II

      • C/C++ software implementation

    • Wireshark

      • Network protocol analyzer