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Organizational Culture. Karine Barzilai-Nahon Executive MSIM – Management of Information Organizations. Organizational Culture – One definition. A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from others.

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organizational culture

Organizational Culture

Karine Barzilai-Nahon

Executive MSIM – Management of Information Organizations

slide2

Organizational Culture –

One definition

A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from others.

The system of shared meaning is a set of key characteristics that the organization values.

schein model of organizational culture
Schein Model of Organizational Culture
  • Artifacts – The most visible level of the culture. Refers to its constructed physical and social environment.
  • Values – The normative facet – what “ought” to be (as opposed to what is).
  • Basic Assumptions – shared by members of the organization, that operate unconsciously, in a “taken-for-granted” fashion.
organizational culture1
Organizational Culture
  • Subcultures: Cultures existing within parts of organizations rather than entirely throughout them.
  • Dominant Culture: The distinctive, overarching “personality” of an organization (usually shared by the majority of members)
  • Strong Culture: Many basic assumptions to more members…
  • Toxic Organizational Cultures: Organizational cultures in which people feel that they are not valued.
  • Healthy Organizational Cultures: Organizational cultures in which people feel they are valued.
effects of organizational culture
Functional

Boundary-defining role

Conveys a sense of identity

Facilitates the generation of commitment

Enhances social system stability

Sense-making and control mechanism

Dysfunctional

Shared values donotagree with organization’s effectiveness

Environment is dynamic

Entrenched culture in rapidchange

Hinders ability to respond to changes

Effects ofOrganizational Culture
the double s cube
The Double S Cube
  • A system of categorizing four types of organizational culture by combining two dimensions – sociability and solidarity. Each of the four resulting cultural types can be both positive and negative in nature.
  • Sociability: A dimension of the double S cube characterized by the degree of friendliness typically found among members of an organization.
  • Solidarity: A dimension of the double S cube characterized by the degree to which people in an organization share a common understanding of the tasks and goals about which they are working.
four organizational cultures
Four Organizational Cultures
  • Networked Culture: this type of organizational culture is characterized by high levels of sociability and low levels of solidarity.
  • Mercenary Culture: this type of organizational culture is characterized by a low degree of sociability and a high degree of solidarity.
  • Fragmented Culture: this type of organizational culture is characterized by a low degree of sociability and a low degree of solidarity.
  • Communal Culture: In the double S cube, this type of organizational culture is characterized by both a high degree of sociability and a high degree of solidarity.
sense of community
Sense of Community
  • Barzilai-Nahon (2006)
    • Membership – the feeling of belonging to the community
    • Communal basis – shared norms, goals, needs, beliefs, information
    • Social Presence – the awareness of being together
    • Emotional connection – bonds with other community members
    • Contribution to Communal Good
    • Shared history
    • Sense of boundaries – can we differentiate ourselves from other collective groups?
transmitting culture artifacts
Transmitting Culture (Artifacts)
  • Symbols: Objects that say more than meets the eye - http://wintercounts.si.edu/
  • Slogans: Phrases that capture organizational culture
  • Stories: “In the old days, we used to . . .”
  • Jargon: The special language that defines a culture
  • Ceremonies: Special events that commemorate corporate values
  • Statements of Principle: Defining culture in writing
socialization
Socialization

Socialization

  • The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.
  • The diversity paradox
how culture changes
How Culture Changes
  • Composition of the workforce
  • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Planned organizational change
  • Responding to the environment and technology
dynamics of change schein
Dynamics of Change (Schein)
  • Unfreezing
    • Enough disconfirming data/information
    • Causing anxiety and/or guilt
    • Enough psychological safety
  • Cognitive Restructuring
    • Trial and error – inventing the wheel
    • Imitation of role models
  • Refreezing