Download
examples using the owl camera ontology n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Examples Using the OWL Camera Ontology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Examples Using the OWL Camera Ontology

Examples Using the OWL Camera Ontology

198 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Examples Using the OWL Camera Ontology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Examples Using the OWL Camera Ontology Roger L. Costello David B. Jacobs The MITRE Corporation (The creation of this tutorial was sponsored by DARPA)

  2. Example 1: Bridging the Terminology Gap using OWL • A key problem in achieving interoperability is to be able to recognize that two pieces of data are talking about the same thing, even though different terminology is being used. • The following slides presents an example to show how OWL may be used to bridge the "terminology gap".

  3. Interested in Purchasing a Camera • Query: "I am interested in purchasing a camera with a 75-300mm zoom lens, that has an aperture of 4.5-5.6, and a shutter speed that ranges from 1/500 sec. to 1.0 sec." • This query can be expressed in XML as: <Camera xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <size>75-300mm zoom</size> <aperture>4.5-5.6</aperture> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> </Camera> Thus, the query may be recast as: "Find all XML documents which overlap with the above XML document."

  4. Is this document relevant? <PhotographyStore rdf:ID="Hunts" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <store-location>Malden, MA</store-location> <phone>617-555-1234</phone> <catalog rdf:parseType="Collection"> <SLR rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </SLR> </catalog> </PhotographyStore> A Web Bot is launched to find camera info. The Bot finds this document at a Web site: Is this document relevant? (Note: SLR = Single Lens Reflex)

  5. A Match? <PhotographyStore rdf:ID="Hunts" xmlns:rdf="&rdf;#"> <store-location>Malden, MA</store-location> <phone>617-555-1234</phone> <catalog rdf:parseType="Collection"> <SLR rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </SLR> </catalog> </PhotographyStore> <Camera xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <size>75-300mm zoom</size> <aperture>4.5-5.6</aperture> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> </Camera> Match? To determine if there is a match, these questions must be answered: 1. What's the relationship between "SLR" and "Camera"? 2. What's the relationship between "focal-length" and "size"? 3. What's the relationship between "f-stop" and "aperture"?

  6. Relationship? <SLR rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </SLR> <Camera xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <size>75-300mm zoom</size> <aperture>4.5-5.6</aperture> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> </Camera>

  7. Relationship between SLR and Camera? This OWL statement (from the Camera Ontology) tells the Web Bot that a SLR is a type of Camera: <owl:Class rdf:ID="SLR"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#Camera"/> </owl:Class> Camera Digital SLR Large-Format

  8. Relationship between focal-length and lens size? This OWL statement tells the Web Bot that focal-length is equivalent to lens size: <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID="focal-length"> <owl:equivalentProperty rdf:resource="#size"/> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Lens"/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="&xsd;#string"/> </owl:DatatypeProperty> "focal-length is synonymous with (lens) size"

  9. Relationship between f-stop and aperture? This OWL statement tells the Web Bot that f-stop is equivalent to aperture: <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID="f-stop"> <owl:equivalentProperty rdf:resource="#aperture"/> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Lens"/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="&xsd;#string"/> </owl:DatatypeProperty> "f-stop is synonymous with aperture" The Web Bot now recognizes that the XML document it found at the Web site - is talking about Cameras, and it - does show the lens size, and it - does show the aperture for the camera. Thus, the Web Bot has determined that this Olympus OM-10 SLR instance is a match for the query!

  10. Example 2: Is the Camera a SLR? • In the last example the query was for a Camera. The Web document contained information about a SLR. The Camera Ontology showed that a SLR is a Camera. • This example is the reverse. The query is for a SLR. The Web document contains information about a Camera. Is the Camera a SLR? Again, the Camera Ontology comes to the rescue.

  11. Interested in Purchasing a SLR • Query: "I am interested in purchasing a SLR with a 75-300mm zoom lens, that has an aperture of 4.5-5.6, and a shutter speed that ranges from 1/500 sec. to 1.0 sec." • This query can be expressed in XML as: <SLR xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <size>75-300mm zoom</size> <aperture>4.5-5.6</aperture> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> </SLR> Thus, the query may be recast as: "Find all XML documents which overlap with the above XML document."

  12. Is this document relevant? <PhotographyStore rdf:ID="Hunts" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <store-location>Malden, MA</store-location> <phone>617-555-1234</phone> <catalog rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Camera rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <viewFinder rdf:resource="http://www.camera.org#ThroughTheLens"/> <lens> <Lens> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Camera> </catalog> </PhotographyStore> A Web Bot is launched to find camera info. The Bot finds this document at a Web site: Is this document relevant?

  13. A Match? <PhotographyStore rdf:ID="Hunts" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <store-location>Malden, MA</store-location> <phone>617-555-1234</phone> <catalog rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Camera rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <viewFinder rdf:resource="http://www.camera.org#ThroughTheLens"/> <lens> <Lens> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Camera> </catalog> </PhotographyStore> <SLR xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <size>75-300mm zoom</size> <aperture>4.5-5.6</aperture> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> </SLR> Match? To determine if there is a match, these questions must be answered: 1. What's the relationship between "SLR" and "Camera"? 2. What's the relationship between "focal-length" and "size"? 3. What's the relationship between "f-stop" and "aperture"?

  14. Relationship? <Camera rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <viewFinder rdf:resource="http://www.camera.org#ThroughTheLens"/> <lens> <Lens> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Camera> <SLR xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <lens> <Lens> <size>75-300mm zoom</size> <aperture>4.5-5.6</aperture> </Lens> </lens> <body> <Body> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> </body> </SLR>

  15. SLRs are characterized by a view finder that is "through the lens" Properties: lens: Lens body: Body viewFinder: Viewer Camera Digital Large-Format SLR Properties: viewFinder: hasValue= #ThroughTheLens (SLR is characterized by a viewFinder that is through the lens) While all Cameras have a viewFinder, a SLR has a viewFinder whose value is restricted to "ThroughTheLens".

  16. Relationship between SLR and Camera? This OWL statement (from the Camera Ontology) tells the Web Bot that SLRs are precisely those Cameras which have a "ThroughTheLens" viewFinder: <owl:Class rdf:ID="SLR"> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Camera"/> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#viewFinder"/> <owl:hasValue rdf:resource="#ThroughTheLens"/> </owl:Restriction> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> Since the XML document has a viewFinder property with the value 'ThroughTheLens' we can infer that: The Olympus-OM-10 is a SLR! The previous example showed the OWL statements which indicated that f-stop is equivalent to aperture, and focal-length is equivalent to aperture. Therefore, the XML document is a match!

  17. Summary: Interoperability despite terminology differences! • The previous two examples demonstrated how a Web Bot was able to dynamically process an XML document from a Web site, despite the fact that the XML document used terminology different than was used to express the query. This interoperability was achieved through the use of the OWL Camera Ontology!

  18. Example 3: Recognizing that Data is NOT Relevant • The previous examples discussed the importance of recognizing that two pieces of data are talking about the same thing. • There are many occasions where it is important to recognize that a piece of data is NOT relevant. • The following slides extends the camera example to demonstrate how the Camera Ontology may be used to determine that a piece of data is not relevant.

  19. Same Query as Before • Query: "I am interested in purchasing a camera with a 75-300mm zoom lens, that has an aperture of 4.5-5.6, and a shutter speed that ranges from 1/500 sec. to 1.0 sec."

  20. Is this document relevant? A Web Bot is launched to find camera info. The Bot finds this document at a Web site: <PhotographyStore rdf:ID="RJs-SpecialtyCameras" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <store-location>Boston, MA</store-location> <phone>617-555-4321</phone> <catalog rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Large-Format rdf:ID="AnselAdams-LF4x5" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> ... </Large-Format> </catalog> </PhotographyStore> By consulting the Camera Ontology, the Web Bot can immediately dismiss this document, without even examining the contents of <Large-Format>. The next slides show how.

  21. Camera Ontology (updated) This class hierarchy shows that Large-Format is a type of Camera which has a body with a non-adjustable shutter-speed: Properties: lens: Lens body: Body viewFinder: Viewer Camera Digital Large-Format SLR Properties: body: allValuesFrom BodyWithNonAdjustableShutterSpeed (i.e., no shutter-speed adjusting on LF cameras) Properties: viewFinder: hasValue= #ThroughTheLens (SLR is characterized by a viewFinder that is through the lens)

  22. No Match! These two OWL statements tells the Web Bot that, while a Large-Format is a type of Camera, its shutter-speed cannot be adjusted. Thus, the XML document is not a match: <owl:Class rdf:ID="Large-Format"> <owl:subClassOf rdf:resource="#Camera"/> <owl:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#body"/> <owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource="#BodyWithNonAdjustableShutterSpeed"/> </owl:Restriction> </owl:subClassOf> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID="BodyWithNonAdjustableShutterSpeed"> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Body"/> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#shutter-speed"/> <owl:cardinality>0</owl:cardinality> </owl:Restriction> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class>

  23. Quickly Recognizing Irrelevant Data • The previous three examples covered opposite ends of the spectrum: • recognizing when data is relevant • recognizing when data is NOT relevant. • With all cases, it was the (Camera) Ontology which provided the information needed to make the assessment of relevance.

  24. Example 4: Distributed Knowledge Representation • A critical capability required for operating in today's information overload is the ability to aggregate (bring together) information from disparate sources into a unified, coherent form. • The example on the following slides shows how a Web Bot can aggregate Camera data from multiple Web sites.

  25. I want a Camera for under $500 • Query: "I am interested in purchasing a camera with a 75-300mm zoom lens, that has an aperture of 4.5-5.6, and a shutter speed that ranges from 1/500 sec. to 1.0 sec. I want to spend under $500 USD."

  26. Olympus-Retail-Outlet-Store Sells Camera Body/Lens Separately <Olympus-Retail-Outlet-Store xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <inventory rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Body rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Body> <Lens rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#EX38" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <compatibleWith rdf:resource="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"/> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>295</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Lens> </inventory> </Olympus-Retail-Outlet-Store> A Web Bot is launched to find camera info. The Bot finds this document at a Web site: This document references an Olympus-OM-10-body resource, and an EX38 resource. The Olympus-OM-10-body is listed as costing $345 USD. The EX38 is listed as being compatibleWith the Olympus-OM-10-body, and costs $295 USD. The Web Bot is unable to determine if this information is relevant until it processes the two referenced resources. The Web Bot stores this document away for later processing ...

  27. Olympus Corporation has the referenced Camera Body and Lens <OlympusCorporation xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xml:base="http://www.olympus.com"> <inventory rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Body rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10-body" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> <Lens rdf:ID="EX38" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> </inventory> </OlympusCorporation> The Web Bot finds the referenced resources at the Olympus Corp's Web site: Note: the complete identifier for Olympus-OM-10-body is the concatenation of the xml:base with '#' and "Olympus-OM-10-body", i.e., http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body Thus, the above document is defining the resource referenced by the Outlet store on the previous slide: <Body rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"> Ditto for EX38.

  28. The Two Web Documents Olympus Corp. Outlet Store <Olympus-Retail-Outlet-Store xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <inventory rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Body rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Body> <Lens rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#EX38" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <compatibleWith rdf:resource="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"/> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>295</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Lens> </inventory> </Olympus-Retail-Outlet-Store> <OlympusCorporation xmlns:rdf="&rdf;#" xml:base="http://www.olympus.com"> <inventory rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Body rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10-body" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> <Lens rdf:ID="EX38" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> </inventory> </OlympusCorporation> The Web Bot can now merge the data from the two Web sites ...

  29. Aggregating Data:Olympus-OM-10-body <Body rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10-body"> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> </Body> <Body rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Body> <Body rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"> <shutter-speed rdf:parseType="Resource"> <min>0.002</min> <max>1.0</max> <units>seconds</units> </shutter-speed> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>325</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Body> The Web Bot now recognizes that the Outlet store is selling a Camera Body with the desired shutter speed, at a cost of $325 USD.

  30. Aggregating Data: EX38 Lens <Lens rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#EX38"> <compatibleWith rdf:resource="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"/> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>295</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Lens> <Lens rdf:ID="EX38"> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.5-5.6</f-stop> </Lens> <Lens rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#EX38"> <compatibleWith rdf:resource="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"/> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.0-4.5</f-stop> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>295</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Lens> The Web Bot now recognizes that the Olympus Outlet store is selling a Camera Lens that is compatible with the Camera body and the Lens has the desired f-stop and focal-length, and the Lens costs $295 USD. Thus, the Web Bot has located a Camera Body, along with a compatible Camera Lens. However, it's too expensive: Total Cost: $325 + $295 = $620 A cheaper Lens needs to be found ...

  31. Sears has a cheaper, compatible lens! The Web Bot locates a cheaper, compatible lens at the Sears Web site: <SearsRoebuck xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <camera-inventory rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Lens rdf:ID="Sears-300-Zoom" xmlns="http://www.camera.org#"> <compatibleWith rdf:resource="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"/> <focal-length>75-300mm zoom</focal-length> <f-stop>4.0-4.5</f-stop> <cost rdf:parseType="Resource"> <rdf:value>145</rdf:value> <currency>USD</currency> </cost> </Lens> </camera-inventory> </SearsRoebuck> With this lens the cost of Body plus Lens is: Total Cost: $325 + $145 = $470 This meets the query's request for a Camera which costs under $500 USD!

  32. Aggregating Data to Create Unified, Coherent Information! Outlet Store Olympus Corp. <Olympus-Retail-Outlet-Store> <inventory rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Body rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"> ... </Body> <Lens rdf:about="http://www.olympus.com#EX38"> <compatibleWith rdf:resource="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"/> ... </Lens> ... </inventory> </Olympus-Retail-Outlet-Store> <OlympusCorporation xml:base="http://www.olympus.com"> <catalog rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Body rdf:ID="Olympus-OM-10-body"> ... </Body> <Lens rdf:ID="EX38"> ... </Lens> ... </catalog> </OlympusCorporation> Web Bot Sears <SearsRoebuck> <camera-catalog rdf:parseType="Collection"> <Lens rdf:ID="Sears-300-Zoom"> <compatibleWith rdf:resource="http://www.olympus.com#Olympus-OM-10-body"/> ... </Lens> ... </camera-catalog> </ SearsRoebuck>

  33. These Examples are Online! Here is the URL to a pictorial view of the Camera Ontology: http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/sld001.htm Here is the URL to the camera.owl document: http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/camera.owl Here are the URLs to 7 physical expressions (instance documents): http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/Query1.xml http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/Hunts.xml http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/Query2.xml http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/Hunts2.xml http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/RJs.xml http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/OlympusOutletStore.xml http://www.xfront.com/owl/ontologies/camera/OlympusCorp.xml