slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Meraiah Foley PhD Candidate Supervisors: Professor Marian Baird Associate Professor Rae Cooper PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Meraiah Foley PhD Candidate Supervisors: Professor Marian Baird Associate Professor Rae Cooper

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Meraiah Foley PhD Candidate Supervisors: Professor Marian Baird Associate Professor Rae Cooper - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 134 Views
  • Uploaded on

Self-Employed Mothers in Australia: Pushed by inflexibility, pulled by opportunity Preliminary Findings. Meraiah Foley PhD Candidate Supervisors: Professor Marian Baird Associate Professor Rae Cooper Discipline of Work and Organisational Studies University of Sydney Business School.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Meraiah Foley PhD Candidate Supervisors: Professor Marian Baird Associate Professor Rae Cooper' - ivy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Self-Employed Mothers in Australia:Pushed by inflexibility, pulled by opportunityPreliminary Findings

Meraiah Foley

PhD Candidate

Supervisors: Professor Marian Baird

Associate Professor Rae Cooper

Discipline of Work and Organisational Studies

University of Sydney Business School

slide2

Self-employment is often touted in the popular media as the Holy Grail for mothers seeking to balance the demands of paid work with family life.

Images: Coniville, N. “The Rise of the Mumpreneur”, Body+Soul Mums http://mums.bodyandsoul.com.au/pregnancy+parenting/parenting+tips/the+rise+of+the+mumpreneur,16775

slide3

Self-employment is often touted in the popular media as the Holy Grail for mothers seeking to balance the demands of paid work with family life.

But research on this group is scant, particularly in Australia, where the focus has largely been on women’s employment in the organisational context.

Images: Coniville, N. “The Rise of the Mumpreneur”, Body+Soul Mums http://mums.bodyandsoul.com.au/pregnancy+parenting/parenting+tips/the+rise+of+the+mumpreneur,16775

slide4

As a proportion of the working population, male business owners still outnumber female business owners in Australia. 12.7% (791,500) male compared to 8.5% female (442,300) in 2012.

slide5

As a proportion of the working population, male business owners still outnumber female business owners in Australia. 12.7% (791,500) male compared to 8.5% female (442,300) in 2012.

Employment growth by gender: 2002 to 2012

Source: BankWest 2012; ABS Labour Force Detailed Quarterly, May 2012

slide6

Employment growth by gender: 2007 to 2012

Source: BankWest 2012; ABS Labour Force Detailed Quarterly, May 2012

slide7

Work patterns by gender: 2012

Source: BankWest 2012; ABS Labour Force Detailed Quarterly, May 2012

slide8

Work patterns by gender: 2012

Source: BankWest 2012; ABS Labour Force Detailed Quarterly, May 2012

slide9

Business operator status by sex and child care provision status: 2006

Source: ABS 2008 (Counts of Australian Business Operators, Cat. 8175.0)

slide10

Why focus on mothers?

  • Rise of the ‘mumpreneur’ narrative in the popular media.
slide11

Why focus on mothers?

  • Rise of the ‘mumpreneur’ narrative in the popular media.
  • Significant evidence that it is motherhood, in particular, which carries a
  • particular penalty in the workplace:
slide12

Why focus on mothers?

  • Rise of the ‘mumpreneur’ narrative in the popular media.
  • Significant evidence that it is motherhood, in particular, which carries a
  • particular penalty in the workplace:
    • Getting a job
slide13

Why focus on mothers?

  • Rise of the ‘mumpreneur’ narrative in the popular media.
  • Significant evidence that it is motherhood, in particular, which carries a
  • particular penalty in the workplace:
    • Getting a job
    • Asking for flex time
slide14

Why focus on mothers?

  • Rise of the ‘mumpreneur’ narrative in the popular media.
  • Significant evidence that it is motherhood, in particular, which carries a
  • particular penalty in the workplace:
    • Getting a job
    • Asking for flex time
    • Securing equal pay
slide15

The motherhood penalty: finding a job

  • A recent real-world audit by researchers at Stanford University found
  • that women without children received 2.1 times as many callbacks for a job
  • interview as equally qualified mothers.

“We found that evaluators rated mothers as less competent and committed to paid work than non-mothers, and consequently, discriminated against mothers when making hiring and salary decisions. Consistent with our predictions, fathers experienced no such discrimination. In fact, fathers were advantaged over childless men in several ways, being seen as more committed to paid work and being offered higher starting salaries.

(Correll et al.2007)

slide16

The motherhood penalty: asking for flex time

  • Researchers from Yale, Harvard and the University of TX found that male
  • workers were significantly more likely than female workers (among both
  • professional and hourly-wage earners) to be granted flexible working
  • arrangements for either professional development or family reasons.

“The association between women and motherhood is so strong that

even women who have proven themselves by achieving a

high-status occupation and asking for further career training

cannot overcome this actuarial mistrust of women workers.”

(Brescoll, Glass and Sedlovskaya, 2013)

slide17

The motherhood penalty: (un)equal pay

  • The existence of the “motherhood penalty” is well documented in the
  • United States, Britain, Canada and Germany (but not in Sweden and
  • Denmark).
  • Does Australia have a “motherhood penalty”?
slide18

The motherhood penalty: (un)equal pay

  • The existence of the “motherhood penalty” is well documented in the
  • United States, Britain, Canada and Germany (but not in Sweden and
  • Denmark).
  • Does Australia have a “motherhood penalty”?
    • Hosking (2010): unexplained wage penalty of 6% per child
    • Livermore et al. (2011): unexplained wage penalty of 5% for the first child; 9% for two or more children.
slide20

Why choose self-employment?

  • For many women, the relative lack of flexibility and autonomy in
  • organisational employment acted to push them out of formal employment.
slide21

Why choose self-employment?

  • For many women, the relative lack of flexibility and autonomy in
  • organisational employment acted to push them out of formal employment.

“I really, honestly don’t believe I could go out and get a job, given my current situation. I don't believe any employer would accept my position and my requirements ... I really, honestly don’t believe an employer would want me.”

– Interview 37, Marketing Consultant, 3 kids

slide23

Flexibility and autonomy revolve around three core areas :

“I kind of wanted to be available for the children… And I didn’t feel that my work and the hours required would be flexible enough for me to be available for the kids.

And if I returned in a part-time role, and that was all I was really prepared to do, the types of work that I would be able to take on would not be challenging. I wouldn’t get the same job satisfaction.”

– Interview 4, Architect, 2 kids

slide24

Availability of care: especially in inner-city or remote rural areas; or not being able to afford it, especially with multiple children. Includes OSHC.

  • Lack of informal care networks.
  • Child care: Not wanting to use it full-time, though not judging those who do.
  • “Being there” or “Being available.”
  • Not wanting to rush: In a practical, logistical sense, but also metaphorically.
  • Guilt: Whatever you do, it’s never enough.
slide25

Availability of care: especially in inner-city or remote rural areas; or not being able to afford it, especially with multiple children. Includes OSHC.

  • Lack of informal care networks.
  • Child care: Not wanting to use it full-time, though not judging those who do.
  • “Being there” or “Being available.”
  • Not wanting to rush: In a practical, logistical sense, but also metaphorically.
  • Guilt: Whatever you do, it’s never enough

External

Internal

slide26

Disconnect with school hours.

  • Logistics: long commutes, tired kids.
  • External culture of face-time: Even in ostensibly family-friendly, “employer of choice” contexts, there is a sense of external pressure to be there.
  • Internal culture of face-time. Many women expressed an internal sense of pressure in being accountable, answerable to someone else.
slide27

Disconnect with school hours.

  • Logistics: long commutes, tired kids.
  • External culture of face-time.Even in ostensibly family-friendly, “employer of choice” contexts, there is a sense of external pressure to be there.
  • Internal culture of face-time. Many women expressed an internal sense of pressure in being accountable, answerable to someone else.

“Walk of shame”

slide28

Perception of poor quality part-time jobs.

  • Sense of control over what types of work; which clients; building something meaningful.
  • Trading off higher pay for better quality; meaningful work.

“It’s a big sacrifice to not be with your kids in many ways, so you want to be doing quality work… You need to be doing something you really like, and you feel like is really useful. I think it makes the value of the work, or the quality of the work, matter more.”

– Interview 15, Consultant, 2 kids

slide29

Motivating Factors: A push-pull view

The constraints

The lack of flexibility

and autonomy, and

the (explicit or implicit)

expectations of

organisational

employment,

combined with ‘good

mother’ demands

act as push factors

for many women.

slide30

Motivating Factors: A push-pull view

The constraints

The lack of flexibility

and autonomy, and

the (explicit or implicit)

expectations of

organisational

employment,

combined with ‘good

mother’ demands

act as push factors

for many women.

The opportunity

Whether they felt pushed or pulled, most of the women viewed self-employment as an opportunity to create meaningful work, on their own terms.

To be ‘role models’ for their children.

slide31

Other findings:

  • 63% do not make regular contributions to superannuation.
  • 59% have never used the Australian government’s superannuation co-
  • contribution scheme (including 30% who were completely unaware of the
  • scheme) , even though the majority of the women in the sample were
  • earning below the income threshold in 2012.
slide32

Other findings:

  • 63% do not make regular contributions to superannuation.
  • 59% have never used the Australian government’s superannuation co-
  • contribution scheme (including 30% who were completely unaware of the
  • scheme) , even though the majority of the women in the sample were
  • earning below the income threshold in 2012.
  • 46% of respondents did not consider themselves to be entrepreneurs,
  • including women running businesses earning more than $100,000 pa,
  • citing their belief that to claim the title of entrepreneur, one must be an
  • innovator, or create something risky (e.g. Richard Branson).
slide33

Other findings:

  • 63% do not make regular contributions to superannuation.
  • 59% have never used the Australian government’s superannuation co-
  • contribution scheme (including 30% who were completely unaware of the
  • scheme) , even though the majority of the women in the sample were
  • earning below the income threshold in 2012.
  • 46% of respondents did not consider themselves to be entrepreneurs,
  • including women running businesses earning more than $100,000 pa,
  • citing their belief that to claim the title of entrepreneur, one must be an
  • innovator, or create something risky (e.g. Richard Branson).
  • About half said they would not consider working for someone else again, unless it was absolutely necessary to do so.
slide34

Some policy implications:

    • Legislation needed to protect longer maternity leaves; more guaranteed access to (truly) flexible working arrangements beyond just early childhood.
    • More affordable, accessible quality child-care.
slide35

Some policy implications:

    • Legislation needed to protect longer maternity leaves; more guaranteed access to (truly) flexible working arrangements beyond just early childhood.
    • More affordable, accessible quality child-care.
    • Better business advice, streamlined reporting requirements for sole-traders and microbusinesses.
    • Flexible business hubs for self-employed people; including on-site childcare.

The usual

suspects

In the absence of major policy shifts:

slide36

Conclusion:

Shelley, M. “Meet the Mumpreneurs in the Business World,”

The Daily Telegraph. 6 June 2011.

http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/meet-the-mumpreneurs-in-business-world/story-fn6b3v4f-1226069634693

slide37

Conclusion:

Images: www.dreamstime.com; www.energytimes.com; www.dailymail.co.uk; www.sheknows.com; www.flickr.com; www.telegraph.co.uk