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ESPAD – are young Europeans getting more alike? Björn Hibell EMCDDA Conference Identifying Europe's Information needs for effective drug policy Lisbon, 6-8 May 2009. www.espad.org. Content. The most important results in the 2007 survey Discuss whether European students have become more alike.

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Espad

ESPAD – are young Europeans getting more alike?Björn HibellEMCDDA ConferenceIdentifying Europe's Information needs for effective drug policy Lisbon, 6-8 May 2009

www.espad.org


Content
Content

  • The most important results in the 2007 survey

  • Discuss whether European students have become more alike

www.espad.org


Data collections
Data collections

  • Data collections in 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007 (and 2008)

  • 26 countries in 1995

  • 30 countries in 1999

  • 35 countries in 2003

  • 35 countries in 2007 (plus 5 in 2008)

www.espad.org


Some facts
Some facts

  • Students that will become 16 years old during the year of the data collection

  • Nationally representative samples of classes

  • About 2.400 participating students in each country

  • Variation: 393 (Monaco) – 9.981 (Italy)

  • About 105.000 European students in 2007

  • Strategy: Standardisation

www.espad.org


Supported by
Supported by

  • The Swedish Government

  • The Swedish National Institute of Public Health

  • The Pompidou Group at the Council of Europe

  • The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)

www.espad.org


Espad 07 methodological considerations
ESPAD 07Methodological considerations

  • Taken together, the methodological problems are limited

  • Drug use figures are probably somewhat underestimated

  • Underreporting probably differ somewhat between countries

  • However, unlikely that underreporting differs so much that it effects the main results with clear differences between groups of countries

  • Small discrepancies between countries should be considered carefully

www.espad.org


Cigarette use during the last 30 days by gender 1995 2007 percentages averages for 20 countries

Cigarette use during the last 30 days by gender. 1995–2007. Percentages. Averages for 20 countries.

www.espad.org


Espad

a) 1995–2007. Percentages. Averages for 20 countries. “A 'drink' is a glass/bottle/can of beer (ca 50 cl), a glass/bottle/ can of cider (ca 50 cl), 2 glasses/bottles of alcopops (ca 50 cl), a glass of wine (ca 15 cl), a glass of spirits (ca 5 cl) or a mixed drink).”

b) The question referred to “five or more drinks in a row” 1995–2003 and nor cider or alcopops were included among the examples. However, a questionnaire test in eight countries 2006 found no significant differences between the two versions.

Proportion reporting having had five or more drinks a) on oneoccasion during the last 30 days, by gender. 1995–2007. b)Percentages. Averages for 17 countries.

www.espad.org


Lifetime use of any illicit drug a by gender 1995 2007 percentages averages for 20 countries

Lifetime use of any illicit drug 1995–2007. Percentages. Averages for 20 countries.a) by gender. 1995–2007.Percentages. Averages for 20 countries.

a) Any illicit drug includes cannabis, ecstasy, amphetamines, LSD or other hallucinogens, crack, cocaine and heroin.

www.espad.org


Lifetime use of marijuana or hashish by gender 1995 2007 percentages averages for 20 countries

Lifetime use of marijuana or hashish by gender. 1995–2007. Percentages. Averages for 20 countries.

www.espad.org


Changes between 2003 and 2007 in lifetime use of marijuana or hashish all students percentages

Changes between 2003 and 2007 in lifetime use of marijuana or hashish. All students. Percentages.

www.espad.org


Lifetime use of marijuana or hashish all students 2007 percentages

Lifetime use of marijuana or hashish. All students. 2007. Percentages.

Belgium and Germany: Limited geographical coverage.

Denmark, Spain and USA: Limited comparability.

www.espad.org


Lifetime use of marijuana or hashish by gender 2007 percentages

Lifetime use of marijuana or hashish by gender. Percentages.2007. Percentages.

1) Belgium and Germany: Limited geographical coverage.

2) Denmark, Spain and USA: Limited comparability.

www.espad.org


Use of marijuana or hashish during the last 30 days by gender 1995 2007 percentages

Use of marijuana or hashish during the last 30 days by gender. 1995-2007. Percentages.

www.espad.org


Espad

Lifetime use of any illicit drug other than marijuana or hashish a) by gender. 1995–2007. Percentages. Averages for 20 countries.

a) Any illicit drug but cannabis includes ecstasy, amphetamines, LSD or other hallucinogens, crack, cocaine and heroin.

www.espad.org


Lifetime use of illicit drugs other than marijuana or hashish a all students 2007 percentages

Lifetime use of illicit drugs other than marijuana or hashish a). All students. 2007. Percentages.

Belgium and Germany: Limited geographical coverage.

Denmark and Spain: Limited comparability.

a) Any illicit drug but cannabis includes ecstasy, amphetamines, LSD or other hallucinogens, crack, cocaine and heroin.

www.espad.org


Illicit drugs 2007
Illicit drugs 2007 hashish

  • Cannabis: 19 % Czech Republic: 45 %

  • Ecstasy: 3 % Isle of Man, Latvia: 7 %

  • Cocaine: 3 % Austria: 8 %

  • Amphetamines: 3 % Isle of Man: 10 %

www.espad.org


Proportion of high risk users reference group 12 months users with complete cast scale answered

Proportion of high-risk users (reference group: 12 months users with complete CAST scale answered).

a) Isle of Man: Confidence intervals have not been adjusted for survey design.

www.espad.org


Proportion of high risk users reference group total sample

Proportion of high-risk users (reference group: total sample).

a) Isle of Man: Confidence intervals have not been adjusted for survey design.

www.espad.org


Changes in lifetime use of cannabis between 1995 and 2007 all students percentage points

Changes in lifetime use of cannabis between 1995 and 2007. All students. Percentage points.

www.espad.org


Espad

Changes in lifetime use of any illicit drug but cannabis All students. Percentage points.from 1995 to 2007. All students. Percentage points.

www.espad.org


Espad

Lifetime use of cannabis. Differences in 1995 and 2007 between the top country and some other countries. Countries that participated in both surveys. Percentage points . All students

Country Difference 1995 Difference 2007

5 24 (41 – 17 %) 22 (45 – 23 %)

10 32 (41 – 9 %) 27 (45 – 18 %)

15 34 (41 – 7 %) 32 (45 – 13 %)

20 40 (41 – 1%) 40 (45 – 5 %)

The figures are higher in 2007 but the differences are about the same No important tendency of getting more alike.

www.espad.org


Espad

Lifetime use of cannabis in 1995 and 2007. Number of countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students.

± 50 % Number of countries

1995 12 % 6 – 18 % 12

2007 17 % 9 – 26 % 13

No important tendency of getting more alike.

www.espad.org


Lifetime use of cannabis high boys girls ratios 1 8 in 1995 and 2007

Lifetime use of cannabis. High boys/girls ratios (1.8+) countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students. in 1995 and 2007.

www.espad.org


Lifetime use of cannabis low boys girls ratios 1 2 in 1995 and 2007

Lifetime use of cannabis. Low boys/girls ratios (-1.2) countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students. in 1995 and 2007.

www.espad.org


Summary 1
Summary (1) countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students.

  • Smoking has decreased since 1999

  • Heavy episode drinking has increased, especially among girls between 2003 - 2007

  • Cannabis experiences increased from 1995 to 2003, but are lower in 2007

  • Illicit drug use is high in the west of Europe, but...

  • ... increases mainly in previous Eastern Europe

www.espad.org


Summary 2
Summary (2) countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students.

  • The percentage of high-risk cannabis consumers among 12 months users differ a lot: 8 to 19 %

  • At population level the prevalence of high risk cannabis use is increasing with the prevalence of cannabis use

  • Strong relationships between substances on the aggregate (country) level

  • Large differences between countries

www.espad.org


Large differences between countries all students 2007
Large differences between countries . All students. 2007 countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students.

Percentage points

Cigarettes, last 30 days 38 (45 – 7 %)

Alcohol, last 30 days 49 (80 – 31 %)

5 + drinks, last 30 days 47 (49 – 2 %)

Cannabis, lifetime 42 (45 – 3 %)

Cannabis, last 30 days 17 (18 – 1 %)

Illicit drug but cannabis, lifetime 15 (16 – 1 %)

www.espad.org


Summary 3
Summary (3) countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students.

Have students become more alike?

  • Girls have become more equal to boys when it comes to cigarette use and alcohol consumption, but...

  • ... no important changes for illicit drug use

www.espad.org


Summary 4
Summary (4) countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students.

  • Differences between high and low cannabis prevalence countries are about the same in 1995 and 2007

  • Countries are clustered in a similar way in 1995 and 2007

  • However, the positions of some countries have changed substantially with increases in some countries in former Eastern Europe and decreases in some countries in the west of Europe

www.espad.org


Espad

Welcome to visit countries with ± 50 % among the 20 countries that participated in both surveys. All students. www.espad.org· The report· Graph engine· Contact details for all countriesBjörn Hibellbjorn.hibell@can.se

www.espad.org