chapter 1 introduction to earth science n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 34

Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 358 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science. Earth Science. What is Earth Science? 1.1. What forces produced the mountains shown on page 1? Why does our daily weather change? Is our climate changing? How old is Earth? How is Earth related to other planets in the solar system?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science' - ivy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
what is earth science 1 1
What is Earth Science? 1.1
  • What forces produced the mountains shown on page 1?
  • Why does our daily weather change?
  • Is our climate changing?
  • How old is Earth?
  • How is Earth related to other planets in the solar system?
  • What causes ocean tides?
  • What was the Ice Age like?
    • Will there be another?
overview of earth science 1 1
Overview of Earth Science 1.1
  • Deals with Earth and its neighbors in space
  • Geology “study of Earth”
    • 2 broad areas
      • Physical – examination of materials that make up Earth & explain possible process that shape our planet
        • Earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, erosion, rocks, minerals
      • Historical – understand Earth’s long history
        • est. time line
overview of earth science continued 1 1
Overview of Earth Science Continued… 1.1
  • Oceanography – study coastal process, seafloor topography, marine life, and composition and movement of seawater
    • incorporates: chemistry, physics, geology, & bio
  • Meteorology - study of the atmosphere, weather, and climate
  • Astronomy – study of the universe
    • all objects in space, including earth
formation of earth 1 1
Formation of Earth 1.1
  • 1 of 9 (or 8) planets
  • Solar system = orderly
  • Formed during same span as other planets and from the same material as the sun
  • Nebular Hypothesis – bodies of solar system evolved from enormous rotating could, the solar nebula
    • made mostly of H & He
nebular hypothesis 1 1
Nebular Hypothesis 1.1
  • Look at Picture on Page 4
  • What do all the stages of this hypothesis have in common?
  • What was the first stage in the development of our solar system?
  • While Earth formed, denser materials sank to Earth’s core while less dense materials escaped to the atmosphere
layers form on earth 1 1
Layers Form on Earth 1.1
  • Earth Formed
  • Radioactive element breakdown (decay)
  • Heat released (from all the colliding particles)
  • Melting of the interior
    • Denser element (iron and nickel) sink to center
    • Lighter/rocky float outward
    • Still believe to occur
  • Atmosphere forms from gases escaping
a view of earth 1 2
A View of Earth 1.2
  • Earth’s Major Spheres
  • 3 major PHYSICAL Environment
    • Hydrosphere – water portion
      • Evaporates  falls back as precipitation  runs back to rivers/oceans/etc
      • Oceans = 97% of water on Earth
      • 3% = groundwater, streams, lakes, and glaciers
        • Important b/c the sustain life and help create land forms
slide11
Atmosphere
    • Gaseous envelop
    • 100 km above earth
      • 90% just within 16 km of earth
    • Provides air we breath
    • protects
  • Geosphere
    • Not uniform
    • Core – heavy dense inner core
    • Mantle
    • Crust – lighter – not uniform
      • Thinnest beneath the ocean
      • Thickest beneath continents
    • Lithosphere – uppermost mantle
    • Asthenosphere – below lithosphere - molten rock
slide13
4th major sphere
  • Biosphere – all of life on earth
    • Ocean floor and upward for several km into the atmosphere
plate tectonics 1 2
Plate Tectonics 1.2
  • Grand Canyon, the Rocky Mountains, and the Appalachian Mountains did not exist a billion years ago
  • Destructive forces – weathering, erosion (wear away land)
  • Constructive Forces – mountain building and volcanism (raising the land)
  • Revolution – learning more about Earth
  • Idea that continents moved the face of the Earth = PLATE TECTONICTS
    • Earth broken at lithosphere into plates
    • Motion caused from uneven heating of earth’s surface = earthquakes, volcanic activity, rocks into mountains
representing earth s surface 1 3
Representing Earth’s Surface 1.3
  • Global Grid
    • Latitude (fatitude) – distance N or S of the equator (0o latitude) – lines run E and W
    • Longitude – Distance E or W of the prime meridian (0o longitude) – lines run N and S
  • Earth is 360 degrees around
  • Equator divides Earth in 2 hemispheres
    • Northern and southern
  • Prime Meridian divides earth in 2 hemispheres
    • Eastern and western
globes 1 3
Globes 1.3
  • Shapes, sizes of islands, continents, and bodies of water
    • Found by exploring
  • Best represented thru a globe
    • Earth is round
maps and mapping 1 3
Maps and Mapping 1.3
  • Flat representation of Earth’s surface
    • Can not be accurately represented
      • Too small, big, out of place
  • The Mercator Projection
    • Gerardus Mercator made map in 1569 to help sailors navigate
    • Lines of longitude are parallel (compare to globe)
      • Makes grid rectangular
    • Bonus: showed directions accurately
    • Negative: sizes and distances distorted (esp around poles)
different projection maps for different purposes 1 3
Different Projection Maps for Different Purposes 1.3
  • Best project determined by use
  • Robinson Projection – widely used
    • Bonus: show most distances, sizes, and shapes accurately
    • Negative: distortions around the edges
  • Conic Projection – wrap a cone of paper around a globe at line of latitude, trace
    • Almost no distortion at line of latitude
    • High distortion away from latitude line
    • Accuracy great over small area (used for maps)
  • Gnonomic Projection
    • Place piece of paper on globe so it touches since point
    • Distance and direction distorted
    • Useful to sailors to show shortest distance between 2 oints
topographic maps 1 3
Topographic Maps 1.3
  • Represent Earth’s 3-D surface in 2-D
  • Show elevation by contour lines
  • Also can show water, roads, gov and public buildings, political boundaries, and places names
  • Contour Lines – every position along a single contour line is the same elevation
    • Every 5th line is bolded = index contour
    • Closer together line = steep slope
    • Farther apart lines = gentle slope
    • Never touch or intersect
    • Depression = circular contours that have hachure marks – small lines on circle that point to the center
scale of topographic maps 1 3
Scale of Topographic Maps 1.3
  • Determine distances on the map and relate them to the real world
  • Certain distance on the map is drawn to equal a certain distance on the surface
  • 1:24,000 = ratio
    • Has no units
    • 1 unit on map is equal to 24,000 units on the ground
geologic maps 1 3
Geologic Maps 1.3
  • Shows type and age of the rocks exposed
  • Each rock formation assigned a color and sometimes a pattern
advance technology 1 3
Advance Technology 1.3
  • Gives us the ability to more precisely analyze Earth’s physical properties
  • Use satellites and computers
  • Remote sensing – process of collecting data about Earth from a distance
technology and earth science 1 3
Technology and Earth Science 1.3
  • Weather Satellites – monitor temp, humidity, & clouds
  • Navigation Satellite – assists ships and submarines
  • Landsat Satellite – Data on Earth’s landmasses, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs  complete 14 orbits per day
  • GPS - Combines satellite with computer technology providing latitude, longitude, and altitude
  • Very Long Baseline Interferometry – measures the geosphere – study tectonic plates
earth system science 1 4
Earth System Science 1.4
  • Look at earth as a system made up of numerous interacting parts
  • Tries to study all branches of science
  • What is a System?
    • Any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.
    • Closed System – no matter enters or leaves the system; energy moves freely
    • Open System – both energy and matter flow into and out of the system
      • Most natural systems
earth as a system 1 4
Earth as a System 1.4
  • Earth powered by energy from 2 sources
    • Sun – drives external processes (weather, climate, ocean circulation, erosion processes)
    • Earth’s interior – from radioactive element and from time Earth formed
      • power internal process = volcanoes, earthquakes, and mountains
    • Change in one system affects the other
      • Volcano erupts  lava flow block nearby valley  influence drainage system  ash influences solar energy = drop in temp.
  • Our actions produce changes in all parts of Earth’s system
people and the environment 1 4
People and the Environment 1.4
  • Environment – everything that surround and influences an organism
    • Biological or social
  • Nonliving = physical environment = air, water, soil, rock, temp, humidity, sunlight
  • Environmental Science – focus on relationships between people and the natural environment
resources 1 4
Resources 1.4
  • Water and soil, metallic and nonmetallic minerals, and energy
  • Foundation of modern civilization
  • RENEWABLE resource – can be replenished in a short period of time
    • Plants and animal food, natural fibers, lumber, paper, water, wind, and the sun
  • NONRENEWABLE – process to create sources takes millions of years
    • Iron, aluminum, copper, oil, natural gas, coal
population 1 4
Population 1.4
  • Growing rapidly
  • Population increases, demand for resources increases
    • Yet, energy resources do not increase
  • Leads to many questions
    • How long will the remaining supplies of basic resources last?
    • How long can we sustain the rising standard of living in today's industrialized countries?
    • How much environmental deterioration are we willing to accept to obtain basic resources?
    • Can alternatives be found?
environmental problems 1 4
Environmental Problems 1.4
  • Air pollution
  • Acid rain
  • Ozone depletion
  • Global warming
  • Loss of fertile soils to erosion
  • Toxic waste
  • Depletion of water resources
  • Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides, floods, hurricanes, drought
  • Knowledge about Earth and how it works is necessary to our survival and well being
what is scientific inquiry 1 5
What is Scientific Inquiry? 1.5
  • Science based on 2 assumptions:
    • Natural world behaves in a consistent, predictable manner
    • Careful, systematic study can explain the natural world’s behavior
  • Basics steps to the scientific method
    • Collect data thru observation and measurement
      • (Question)
    • Hypothesis (1 or more working hypothesis)
    • Test and Analyze
    • Conclusion = acceptance, modification, or rejection of hypothesis
scientific inquiry 1 5
Scientific Inquiry 1.5
  • Theory
    • Made after hypothesis has been tested extensively and competing hypothesis eliminated
    • well tested and widely accepted by scientific community
    • EXPLAINS observable facts