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Variables - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Variables. A variable, as opposed to a constant, is anything that can vary, or be expressed as more than one value, or is in various values or categories (Simon, 2006). Quantitative designs have at least two types of variables: independent and dependent (Creswell, 2004).

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variables
Variables
  • A variable, as opposed to a constant, is anything that can vary, or be expressed as more than one value, or is in various values or categories (Simon, 2006).
  • Quantitative designs have at least two types of variables: independent and dependent (Creswell, 2004).
  • independent variable (x-value) can be manipulated, measured, or selected prior to measuring the outcome or dependent variable (y-value).
variables1
Variables
  • Intervening or moderating variables affect some variables and are affected by other variables.
  • They influence the outcome or results and should be controlled as much as possible through statistical tests and included in the design (Sproull, 1995; 2004).
  • (ANCOVA) may be used to statistically control for extraneous variables. This approach adjusts for group differences on the moderating variable (called a covariate) that existed before the start of the experiment.