Southern Colonies. Objectives. Describe how Jamestown was settled, why the colony struggled, and how it survived. Explain the relationship of Indians and settlers in the Southern Colonies. Discuss the settlement of Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia.
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Objectives • Describe how Jamestown was settled, why the colony struggled, and how it survived. • Explain the relationship of Indians and settlers in the Southern Colonies. • Discuss the settlement of Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia.
charter– a certificate of permission from the king to colonize an area in the Americas joint-stock company– a group of investors in the colonizing effort who shared in profits and losses of a colony Powhatan– powerful chief of 30 Indian tribes in area of Jamestown colony John Smith– leader in Jamestown colony Terms and People
House of Burgesses– first representative body in colonial America proprietary colony – English colony in America that belonged to powerful individuals or companies Bacon’s Rebellion – a revolt in September 1676, where Nathaniel Bacon marched his armed followers to Jamestown, drove out the governor, and burned the town Lord Baltimore – owner and governor of the colony of Maryland Terms and People(continued)
James Oglethorpe– leader of the colony of Georgia royal colonies– English colonies in America that belonged to the crown Terms and People(continued)
What were the characteristics of the government and the economy in the Southern Colonies? Since the area was not colonized by Spain and France, England established colonies along the southern Atlantic coast. The earliest successful English colony in North America was Jamestown, founded in 1607 in what is now Virginia.
The first English colonies were founded by investors who sought to promote British interests and make a profit. • After getting a charter, or certificate of permission from the king, they formed joint-stock companies, which allowed them to share the profit or divide the loss. • In the 1580s, the first two English colonies in Roanoke failed, but in 1607, the Virginia Company, a group of wealthy London merchants, founded Jamestown.
Early Jamestown colony life held promise and challenge. Located on the Chesapeake Bay, the colony had fertile land and navigable rivers. Nearby swamps gave the colonists some protection from Indians but also bred mosquitoes that spread malaria. At first, colonists suffered from disease and hunger. Many early colonists refused to farm and instead searched for gold and silver.
Jamestown colonists built a fort soon after they arrived. John Smith emerged as a leader of the colony.
The thirty Indian tribes living in the area had a powerful leader, Chief Powhatan, who tried to avoid confrontation and to contain the colonists. But the colonists wanted Indian land. War broke out in 1609. Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, was captured by the English. She later married Englishman John Rolfe. Powhatan reluctantly made peace after four wearying years of war. Pocahontas after her marriage to John Rolfe
Jamestown began to thrive thanks to the cultivation of a new crop. Led by John Rolfe, the colonists learned to grow tobacco, which was very popular in Europe. By 1640, the Chesapeake area was the principal supplier of tobacco to Europe.
In 1619, the Virginia Company offered free land in Virginia to people in England. The population of the colony grew. According to the headright system, anyone who paid their own or someone else’s way to Virginia received 50 acres of land for free. Wealthy people amassed large plantations under this system. In 1619, the Virginia Company allowed colonists to form the House of Burgesses, the first representative body in colonial America. The House of Burgesses had power to make laws and raise taxes.
Ownership Structure of English Southern Colonies Most of the colonies, whether royal or proprietary, had governing elected assemblies which could make laws and raise taxes.
1622 Indians killed nearly one third of the colonists. But the colonists defeated the Indians and took more land. 1644 Intense fighting and disease killed hundreds of colonists and thousands of Indians. 1670 The population of Virginia Algonguins fell to 2,000; the number of colonists increased to 41,000. The colonist expansion in Virginia led to wars over land with the Indians.
The pressures of a growing settler population spurred Bacon’s Rebellionin Virginia. Nathaniel Bacon organized colonists and attacked the Indians. Then, Bacon marched on Jamestown, the seat of government, and burned it. Royal governor William Berkeley raised taxes and refused to exterminate the Indians. • Bacon suddenly died and the rebellion collapsed. • A new royal governor was appointed. • The new governor lowered taxes.
Maryland was the only Southern colony founded for religious reasons. • Proprietary colony founded in 1632 as a refuge for English Catholics • Owned and governed by Lord Baltimore • Allowed slavery • Tobacco was the main crop.
The Carolinas were mostly tobacco and rice plantations. • 1670 Proprietary colony founded Lords Proprietors • 1691 Divided into North and South Carolina • 1729 Both became royal colonies • Allowed slavery
The Beginnings of the Georgia Colony in 1732 The proprietary colony was founded by James Oglethorpe as a haven for debtors. At the time, people could be imprisoned for debt. • England hoped the Georgia colony would prevent the expansion of Spain’s Florida colony. • Slavery was not allowed.
Settlers protested the strict rules. The colony became a royal colony in 1752. Laws against slavery were abolished. Changes later occurred in the Georgia Colony.