Stroop Task. Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Following a rule. Attention. Error based learning. PFC. DLPFC inputs: primary sensory, mostly dorsal stream. VLPFC inputs: Multimodal inputs from the STS. Some ventral stream inputs. OFC inputs: VTA Amygdala, hippocampus & thalamus.
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Heavy input from VTA carrying dopamine signal.
Many interareal connections.
DLPFC projects to:
Dorsomedial frontal lobe
Highly connected to FEF and very similar.
Mainly dorsal stream input, not much ventral
Far more connected with Cingulate then FEF
Low level stimulation evokes saccades and neurons have saccade related activity
Stimulation generates a single saccade not a series
SEF has eye position dependant activity
SEF alone cannot generate saccades
Very heterogeneous area including gross morphology and cytoarchitecture
Dense connections with motor cortex and DLPFC
Inputs from thalamus, VTA & indirect input from amygdala
ACC has dense reciprocal connectivity with SEF
Single unit activity:
Any task in which there was allot of cognitive “conflict” or increasing task difficulty
Most ACC activation was accompanied by PFC activation
Two theories emerged: Conflict detection and Error detection
Starts from a an idea about how the brain works: Control theory
That there are conflicting streams of information in the brain that must be managed or controlled.
Thus, you need some module to monitor conflict so it can be managed.
ACC is active during high conflict tasks like the stroop test and go/no-go tasks.
ACC is also active when errors are made: well this is a conflict between the correct and incorrect response.
Starts from an physiological observation: The error-related negativity (ERN)
The ERN is an event related potential (ERP) which is an average of electroencephalogram or EEG aligned to some event.
With the onset of an erroneous choice or the revelation of an erroneous choice there is a larger negativity in the EEG that is generated by the ACC.
They also have a host of imaging studies showing that the ACC singles errors.
Test subjects ability to control a movements initiation by periodically presenting a stop signal during reaction time task.
Probability that you wont cancel increases with stop signal delay.
Short latency saccades are less likely to be canceled because the stop single does not have time to influence the system.
Competition between a GO and a STOP signal.
The stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) is the time required to cancel a sccade
Movement cells began to build to threshold but on canceled trials collapsed.
Fixation cells are active after fixation and pause during the saccade.
Decrease until the stop signal and then begin to rise on canceled trials.