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Introduction. George Washington left pubic life in 1783 to manage his plantation, astonishing European observers but bolstering the authority of elected Patriot leaders. “ ’Tis a Conduct so novel… inconceivable to People [here],” reported John Trumbull an American painter from London. .

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  • George Washington left pubic life in 1783 to manage his plantation, astonishing European observers but bolstering the authority of elected Patriot leaders.
  • “’Tis a Conduct so novel… inconceivable to People [here],” reported John Trumbull an American painter from London.
the political crisis of 1790s
The Political Crisis of 1790s
  • Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson offered contrasting visions of the future.
  • Would the U.S. remain an agricultural nation governed by local officials, as Jefferson hoped? Or would Hamilton’s vision of a strong national government and an economy based on manufacturing become a reality?
the federalists implement the constitution
The Federalists Implement the Constitution
  • The Constitution expanded the dimension of political life by allowing voters to choose national leaders as well as local and state officials.
  • George Washington elected – political father
  • Judiciary Act of 1789
  • Bill of Rights – Madison submits 19 amendments, ten of which are approved
hamilton s financial program
Hamilton’s Financial Program
  • Secretary of the treasury under Washington
  • Wanted to enhance national authority and to assist financiers and merchants
  • Public credit, national bank, and manufacturing
  • Program of national mercantilism – government-assisted economic development
public credit redemption and assumption
Public Credit: Redemption and Assumption
  • As an underdeveloped nation, U.S. needed good credit to secure loans from Dutch and British financiers
  • Proposed national government further enhance public credit by assuming the war debts of the states
creating a national bank
Creating a National Bank
  • Bank of the United States – would be jointly owned by private stockholders and the national government
  • Would provide stability to economy by making loans to merchants, handling government funds, and issuing bills of credit
  • Arguments ensue between strict constructionists and loose constructionists
raising revenue through tariffs
Raising Revenue through Tariffs
  • Revenue to pay annual interest on the national debt
  • Excise taxes, including duty on whiskey distilled in the United States – $1 million/year
  • Higher tariffs on foreign imports
  • Did not support high protective tariffs, advocated for revenue tariffs
  • As American trade increased, customs revenue rose steadily and paid down the national debt
jefferson s agrarian vision
Jefferson’s Agrarian Vision
  • Hamilton’s financial measures had split Federalists into bitterly opposed factions
  • North and South division (south Jefferson and Madison – Democratic Republicans, Republicans for short)
  • Jefferson embraced optimism of Enlightenment, having seen the poverty of laborers in British factories, doubted wage-workers had the economic and political independence needed to sustain a republican polity
  • Yeoman farm families
  • Drew from Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
turmoil in europe
Turmoil in Europe
  • French Revolution in 1789
  • First French Republic (1792-1804) goes to war against a British-led coalition of monarchies
  • Wheat prices leaped from 5 to 8 shillings a bushel, remain high for 20 years
  • Substantial profits in Chesapeake and Middle Atlantic farms (bread basket)
  • George and South Carolina profits go up as cotton industry blooms with invention of the cotton gin and mechanization of cloth production in Britain
the french revolution
The French Revolution
  • Proclamation of Neutrality during Washington’s term
  • Ideology – Jacobins “citizen” political clubs, distaste of church closures for rational religion based on “natural morality”
  • Wealthy Americans fearful of revolution condemned execution of King Louis XVI and 3000 aristocrats
  • Whiskey Rebellion
important terms
Important Terms
  • Jay’s Treaty
  • XYZ Affair
  • “Revolution of 1800”
the westward movement and jeffersonian revolution
The Westward Movement and Jeffersonian Revolution
  • Expanding Republic and Native American Resistance
  • Conflict over Land Rights
  • U.S. Army doubles under Washington in case of alliance between Western Confederacy and the British in Canada
  • Assimilation is rejected
migration and changing farm economy
Migration and Changing Farm Economy
  • Southern migrants – yeomen families flocked into Kentucky and Tennessee leaving Maryland and the planter-controlled society
  • Widespread landlessness and opposition to slavery sparked migration to Ohio River into future states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois
  • Carolinas to Gulf of Mexico
jefferson s presidency
Jefferson’s Presidency
  • Marbury v. Madison 1803
  • The Louisiana Purchase
  • Secessionist Schemes
  • Lewis and Clark Meet the Mandan and Sioux
war of 1812 transformation of politics
War of 1812:Transformation of Politics
  • The Embargo of 1807
  • Western War Hawks
  • Near disaster both militarily and politically
  • Federalists oppose the War
chief justice john marshall
Chief Justice John Marshall
  • Marshall’s Federalist Law
  • Asserting National Supremacy Court Cases
  • McCulloch v. Maryland – interprets Constitution to give broad powers to the national government
  • Gibbons v. Ogden- give national government jurisdiction over interstate commerce
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • “Era of Good Feelings”
  • 3 interrelated themes: public policy, westward expansion, and party politics
  • Alexander Hamilton v. Thomas Jefferson
  • Westward movement that transformed the agricultural economy and sparks new wars with the Indian peoples
  • Expansion shaped American diplomatic and military policy: Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, and the treaties negotiated by John Quincy Adams
  • First Party System
  • Federalists’ Sedition Act, the Republicans’ Embargo Act, and War of 1812