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Rethinking Biomass Energy in Sub-Sahara Africa. Ewah Eleri International Centre for Energy, Environment & Development International Symposium, Bonn, Tuesday August 25, 2009 VENRO & German NGO Forum on Environment & Development. Why the growing Interest in Biomass Energy?.

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rethinking biomass energy in sub sahara africa
Rethinking Biomass Energy in Sub-Sahara Africa

Ewah Eleri

International Centre for Energy, Environment & Development

International Symposium, Bonn, Tuesday August 25, 2009

VENRO &

German NGO Forum on Environment & Development

why the growing interest in biomass energy
Why the growing Interest in Biomass Energy?

The link between biomass energy and poverty is strong

Biomass delivers energy in all forms – solid, liquid and gas

Meets energy needs without expensive technologies

The linkage with ghg emission mitigation is strong

By being locally-driven, it enhances energy security

why the growing interest in biomass energy cont
Why the growing Interest in Biomass Energy? Cont...

½ Million die annually in SSA as result of traditional fuelwood use (against 750,000 for malaria)

One billion in SSA will in 2030 be dependent on traditional woodfuel for energy

Access to modern energy is in decline in most of SSA countries

poverty main driver of energy access decline
Poverty – Main Driver of Energy Access Decline

Recent economic growth reversed by global economic crisis, crash in commodity prices, lower FDI and drop in remittances

Since 1980 the number of poor people had declined by 1% annually in developing countries, except in SSA

Most countries in SSA will not reduce by ½ the number of poor people by 2015

electricity production
Electricity Production

Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities

underdeveloped modern energy sector
Underdeveloped Modern Energy Sector
  • Refining capacity only 3.3% of world total
  • Hydropower production only 7% of total potential
  • Hydropower production only 3% of world total
energy the mdgs
Energy & the MDGs
  • Energy underpins wealth creation
  • Extends economic activities beyond daylight
  • Encourages locally owned businesses
  • Bridges the digital divide
  • Improves access to water resources
  • Helps achieve universal primary education
  • Reduces the burden of diseases
biomass wood resource trends
Biomass – Wood Resource Trends
  • 0.7% annual forest decline in SSA
  • Growing demand for fuelwood
  • Increased fuel wood scarcity around major towns
  • Rising cost of fuel wood and charcoal in urban and peri-urban areas
biomass charcoal trends
Biomass – Charcoal Trends
  • The Energy Transition has stopped in charcoal use
  • Urban demand for charcoal is a key driver for peri-urban devegetation
  • Charcoal production and combustion technologies remain predominantly inefficient
traditional biomass energy tech trends e g open fire stoves
Traditional Biomass Energy Tech Trends – e.g. open fire stoves
  • High wood and energy loss
  • High costs
  • 15% of total food budget in street restaurants (in Nigeria)
  • 11% of total food budgets in secondary schools (in Nigeria)
  • High toll on health
improved biomass energy tech trends e g cookstoves
Improved Biomass Energy Tech Trends – e.g cookstoves
  • Can be manufactured locally, No IPR barriers and requires only basic training
  • Good examples: 2m sold in Kenya; 1.5m delivered by GTZ
  • Stove programmes are small-scaled, donor dependent and project based
  • Hard road from project to the market place
  • Stoves not available in markets
  • New interests in large scale production
why the lack of progress on cookstoves
Why the lack of progress on cookstoves?
  • Policy failure
  • Product Quality
  • Promotion
  • Pricing and finance
  • Partnership
modern biomass biofuels trends
Modern Biomass – Biofuels Trends
  • Potentials to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and stimulate access to rural energy
  • Isolated projects
  • Investments in large scale or small scale biofuels project almost non-existent
  • Weak government promotion and regulation
modern biomass biofuel issues
Modern Biomass – Biofuel Issues
  • Food and fuel
  • Fuel and environment
  • Land rights
  • Policy support
  • Affordable financing
  • Large scale vs. small scale
modern biomass cogeneration
Modern Biomass – Cogeneration
  • Quick wins in opportunities for power production
  • Good examples in Mauritius and Kenya
  • De-industrialisation reduces scope
  • Weak policy support (feed-in laws in Kenya and South Africa)
domestic reforms governance
Domestic Reforms - Governance
  • Devolution of energy institutions
  • Enhance participation in decision-making, especially women
  • Make access to energy a right
  • Support budget tracking
  • Build domestic coalitions for energy right
  • Fight corruption
domestic reforms contd
Domestic Reforms – Contd…
  • Think Big!!
  • Engage the political process
  • Deepen domestic financial markets
  • Strengthen regulation and promotion of sustainable biofuels
  • Market development for improved and modern biomass techs
the role of international cooperation
The Role of International Cooperation
  • Set global targets on energy access
  • Scale up quick gains – cookstoves and cogen
  • Build a global biomass cookstove partnership
  • Strengthen the link b/w energy access and the tech transfer debate within UNFCCC
  • Make the carbon market serve the poor
  • Scrutinize the role of development assistance, especially MFIs
thank you

Thank you!

Ewah Eleri

International Centre for Energy, Environment & Development

ewah@iceednigeria.org

www.iceednigeria.org