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Rest of the course. Only 3 lectures left - last lecture is on May 30th we expect you to come to this as key learning portfolio exercise of reflecting on best policy briefs Next week last tutorial Week after - May 20-22 you are giving your policy briefs

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Rest of the course

  • Only 3 lectures left - last lecture is on May 30th we expect you to come to this as key learning portfolio exercise of reflecting on best policy briefs

  • Next week last tutorial

  • Week after - May 20-22 you are giving your policy briefs

  • Extra session on June 2nd for anyone interested on getting a job in EPP

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Assessment reminders

  • You must all have by now been to a supertutorial and last round of facilitations are next week

    Remaining essay questions are:

  • Cultural Heritage - due by tuts May 13-15 “ What is cultural heritage? What should we keep? How should we decide?”

  • Indigenous issues - due by tuts May 20-22 “Why should Indigenous people be involved in EPP? What are the current barriers to their effective involvement and how can these be overcome?”

  • Regional Planning -due by may 27-29 “How can regional planning best contribute to sustainable environmental management?”

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Learning Portfolio

  • Due June 13th but get it in earlier if you can!

    Your learning portfolio MUST contain at least the following items:

  • 1) reflections on what you learnt in each tutorial (please supply an explanation if you miss more than two tutorials) on what you learnt. Your tutorial reflections should include the one you facilitate, so for this one you should reflect on both what you learnt about the topic and about the process of facilitating.

  • 2) reflections on what you learnt in the lectures (please supply an explanation if you miss more than two lectures). There are lots of examples of good learning portfolios from past courses on my webpage.

  • 3) all of your one page tutorial preparations (ie you have to hand in ones even for tutorials you missed) and your supertut one page summary

  • 4) reflections on your classmates policy briefs delivered in the last tutorial and last lecture.

  • 5) Plus two one page summaries of how two lectures/talks/seminars relate to EPP. Any of the panel sessions in SRES1001 can be used for these summaries.

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You must go to 2 relevant talks and summarise in one page or less their relevance to EPP

  • Hence all the emails I have been sending you about such talks

  • Seminar next Monday 12 noon Fiona Miller CRES seminar room - applicant for Geography lectureship

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Policy briefings to be given in week 11 tutorials less their relevance to EPP


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Cross-cultural communication is a key less their relevance to EPP

  • Lynette Liddle’s “cultural midwife” concept

  • Need for two way learning

  • Non-Indigenous people learning to sit and listen

  • Quite acceptable not to answer a question in many Aboriginal contexts

  • Different etiquette - stranger sits on smoky side of fire - forces them to look away, not directly into the eyes of their host

  • Deal with conflict much more directly – Uluru eg

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Environmental, Policy and Planning less their relevance to EPP

Regional planning

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Regional Planning - Lecture outline less their relevance to EPP

  • Different ways of dividing Australia up

  • How do you make regional environmental planning work?

  • Trends in Australia towards regional approaches eg attempts to “scale up” Landcare and catchment management

  • Top-down v bottom-up regional processes - Regionalism v Regionalisation

  • Bioregionalism

  • Institutional arrangements to support sustainability

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Regional planning: last tut topic for good reason less their relevance to EPP

  • Regional planning issue deliberately at the end of the course as it is such a fundamental issue and one that builds on so much that comes beforehand

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Key issues less their relevance to EPP

  • Lots of ways to divide the world or any country up – key is to get the right “regionalisation” for the right issue

  • What are your ideas on key ways of dividing Australia up?

  • Some Australian egs

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1987 regional planning

  • The Murray-Darling Basin Agreement


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Total Catchment Management regional planning

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Murray-Darling Basin regional planning

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Regional planning at many scales with the MDB regional planning

  • Border Rivers agreement- NSW - Qld

  • SA- Vic agreement on groundwater

  • NSW-Victoria-ACT Alps agreement

  • smaller scale Catchment Management Boards- Lake Eyre Basin

  • Regional Landcare Groupings

  • smaller scale Catchment Management Boards, ICM, TCM - see

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1992 regional planning

  • National Forest Policy Statement (NFPS)

  • paved the way for the Regional Forest Agreements and see

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2000 regional planning

  • OUR VITAL RESOURCESA National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality in Australia

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National regional planningAction Plan for Salinity and Water Quality

“Catchment/regions are the most effective scale at which to engage the community in addressing dryland salinity and water quality. The catchment/region units will underpin broader levels of management such as the Murray Darling Basin Salinity Strategy or State/Territory salinity plans”

P2 A National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality, October 2000, Commonwealth Government of Australia

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Six priorities of the National Action Plan regional planning

  • targets and standards for natural resource management

  • integrated catchment/regional management plans

  • capacity building for communities and landholders to assist them to develop and implement integrated catchment/region plans, together with the provision of technical and scientific support and engineering innovations

  • an improved governance framework

  • clearly articulated roles for the Commonwealth, State/Territory and community

  • a public communication program

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2004 regional planning

  • More ambitious regional planning exercises

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Developing regional boundaries regional planning

  • 56 regions have been identified across Australia for the purposes of determining natural resource management and sustainable agriculture priorities.

  • The boundaries for each region have been established by agreement between Commonwealth and State/Territory Governments.

  • The original assessment for selection of the NAP priority regions was made by the Australian Government.

  • This assessment was based on National Land and Water Resources Audit data

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OK - How do we make regional planning work regional planningSmall group work

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Group 1 - regional planninganyone who has worked for government – if you were in charge in a govt dept for assisting a regional planning exercise what are they keys to getting the process to be responsive to local needs?

Group 2 – anyone who has lived in rural Australia – what are the keys for involving rural Australians in any regional environmental planning?

Group 3- Indigenous facilitators – what are the keys to involving Indigenous people in any regional environmental planning?

Group 4 - regional planning facilitators –what are the keys to defining regions that work?

Group 5 - Landcare facilitators – how can landcare be scaled up?

Group 6 - Anyone left - what are the key things this course has taught you so far on making regional environmental planning in Australia work?

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Establishing regional organisations regional planning

  • Each region has at least one 'regional body' formed to undertake the important job of managing and protecting their region's natural resources.

  • Larger regions may have more than one regional body. Where possible and appropriate, existing structures are being used.

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Developing integrated regional natural resource management plans

  • Regional plans are the basis for regional investment from both the Natural Heritage Trust and the National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality, removing the need for individual project plans or applications in order to access different types of Government funding.

  • Regional bodies, State/Territory governments and the Commonwealth work together to develop an integrated natural resource management plan for each region.

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Different regions for different issues plans

  • Critical issue to work out the most appropriate region for particular issues

  • this is going to be different for most issues

  • Eg. airsheds and watersheds clearly different and requires appropriate planning divisions

  • Needs of different species need to be considered at different scales eg wildebeest, tourists, bears and wolves

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Some implications of this biogeographic regionalisation plans

  • Many zones with no protected areas

  • some zones are entirely Aboriginal land – strong factor in Indigenous Protected Areas being developed

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Scaling up catchment management boards/authorities plans

  • Upper Shoalhaven

  • Shoalhaven

  • Sydney south

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Cultural and catchment boundaries are usually different plans

  • catchment approaches can be top down and can be a cause of conflict

  • Braidwood Landcare egs

    • Araluen in or out?

    • CMC imposed – Landcare locally owned

    • Regionalisation of Landcare

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Non-contiguous regions plans

  • Eg Aboriginal Dreaming paths

    • Montague Island and Gulaga (Mt Dromedary)

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Communities of common concern plans

  • Linking regions of common concern

  • Eg Albury City Council

  • South East Asia impacted by smoke haze

  • Everyone around the Indian Ocean in the path of the boxing day Tsunami

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Regionalism versus Regionalisation plans.

  • Government attempts to set up regional organisations and the moves towards regional groupings that are emerging from the community are fundamentally different.

  • Campbell explores this issue in great detail and labels the bottom-up tendency as regionalism and the top-down one as regionalisation.

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Andrew Campbell plans

“Regionalism is about autonomy and identity at a regional level, and about ‘scaling up’ to better engage with particular environmental and social issues, driven from below. Regionalisation is about central governments achieving efficiencies and effectiveness by concentrating program delivery at the regional scale, usually while retaining financial control and hence program control”.

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Need to decide what we mean by the term “region” - I have been speaking of regions at very different scales

  • South-East Asian region

  • Mekong region

  • Communities of common interest

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Regions in Australia have been speaking of regions at very different scales

  • have usually been defined at scales greater than local government areas and smaller than States

  • Eg the Riverina, New England, the Channel Country, the South Coast, the Southern Tablelands, the Wimmeria, Eyre Peninsula, The Top End (of the NT), Cape York

  • “Regional Australia” has a different meaning

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One definition of “regions” have been speaking of regions at very different scales

“sizeable division of Territory separated from others by a mixture of tangible characteristics which simultaneously sets it is apart from neighbouring areas, and declares a degree of commonality, or shared identity, among the physical features and/or the inhabitants of that division.”

Joe Powell The emergence of Bioregionalsim in the Murray-Darling Basin 1993

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Interesting history in Australia of regional movements have been speaking of regions at very different scales

  • eg New England region in northern New South Wales

  • Major towns in the region with a focal point for a growing dissatisfaction with Sydney in the 1890s

  • in 1915 separatist agitators on the North Coast led by Earle Page united with those from New England and their campaign rapidly gained momentum and in 1918 became known as the new state movement

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New England’s attempts to become a new state have been speaking of regions at very different scales

  • this new state movement seem likely to be successfully early 1920s but was thwarted by the Cohen Royal Commission in 1925

  • a referendum in 1967 throughout the proposed new state area resulted in most in northern and North Coast New South Wales voting yes to separation from NSW but they were defeated by larger no vote for Newcastle region

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History of regional planning in Australia have been speaking of regions at very different scales

  • Important to note also that there has been a long history of regional planning in Australia

  • the Commonwealth Government (traditionally ALP ones - but LNP done same recently) have often seen it as a tool to circumvent recalcitrant state governments

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The Commonwealth view of regional planninghas changed over time

  • Conflict between centralist vs State's rights views

  • 1940s Curtin -- Chifley post-war reconstruction

  • 1970s Whitlam – Uren big picture Albury -- Wodonga regional growth centres

  • mid-1990s Keating – Brian Howe "economic growth engine” see Mr Joel Fitzgibbon First Speech To Parliament - homage to Howe’s legacy

  • Current government in the late 1990s they regionalised natural resource management through the Natural Heritage Trust

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Bioregionalism time

  • popular movement in North America particularly in the so called Pacific North-West

  • has a long history but popularised in the mid 1970s by Peter Berg and Raymond Dasmann of the Planet Earth Foundation

  • Eg of Salmonopolis

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Two definitions time

  • A bioregion is “a place defined by its life forms, its topography and its biota, rather than by human dictates; a region governed by nature, not legislature” Kirkpatrick Sale 1985 Dwellers in the Land: The Bioregional Vision San Francisco: Sierra Club

  • Bioregionalism, as a cultural movement, “celebrates the particular: the unique and often indescribable features of a place. It celebrates this through visual arts, music, drama ands symbols which convey the feeling of place”

    Editorial “An integrating Idea” The New Catalyst 1 No 2 1986:2

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Does nature know best? time

  • Great article - Bioregionalism: Science or Sensibility? Environmental Ethics 1990 p161-173

  • Criticizes the bioregionalism movement as a veering towards a simplistic view of “nature knows best” and argues that bioregionalism is best seen as a sensibility and environmental ethic

  • Author argues that “Bioregionalism, in essence, is the regional fulfillment of Aldo Leopolds’s Sand Country Almanac “land ethic”.

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A land ethic time

We shall never achieve harmony with the land, any more than we shall achieve absolute justice or liberty for people. In these higher aspirations the important thing is not to achieve, but to strive. It is only in mechanical enterprises that we can expect that early or complete fruition of effort which we call ‘success’.

When we say ‘striving’, we admit at the outset that the thing we need must grow from within. No striving for an idea was ever injected wholly from without.

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A land ethic cont. time

The problem, then, is how to bring about a striving for harmony with land among the people many of whom have forgotten there is any such thing as land, among whom education and culture being have become almost synonymous with landlessness. This is the problem of ‘conservation education’.

A Sand County Almanac - Aldo Leopold. 1970:210 Ballantine Books 1949 original

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Leopold’s quote highlights how successful regional planning also requires effective environmental education

  • Effective environmental education requires:

    • raising awareness of environmental issues without getting people offside by preaching to them

    • educating without depressing the pants of people by painting a black picture of how bad environmental problems are

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Aim of the game in my opinion should be to empower people by planning also requires effective environmental education

  • giving them the skills to learn about the environment themselves and

  • empowering them by presenting positive role models of how things can be achieved by highlighting positive things that are happening as far as solving environmental problems

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Making regional organisations work: we can learn from the literature of common property resources

  • established relationships, trust and commitment

  • shared understandings of the CPR that come out of point 1

  • management systems that rely on local ecological practice

  • clearly defined boundaries

  • transparent processes

  • monitoring systems

  • graduated sanctions

  • internal conflict resolution systems

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We can also learn from the literature on core principles for institutional arrangements to support sustainability

  • Sustainability

  • Holism

  • Equity

  • Inclusiveness and participation

  • Accountability

  • Effectiveness

  • Efficiency

  • Durability

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Sustainability institutional arrangements to support

  • as a central goal, including taking a precautionary approach

  • so as not to diminish opportunities for future generations;

  • also recognising the pre-eminent importance of ecosystems upon which communities and economies ultimately depend

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Holism and Equity institutional arrangements to support

  • Holism

    • as an approach, taking account of: social, cultural, economic and ecological issues, their actions and interdependencies

  • Equity

    • for its own sake, but also as a means of reducing conflict

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Inclusiveness and participation institutional arrangements to support

  • encouraging a high level of diverse stakeholders

  • Need to acknowledge the key issues of representation, involvement and ownership;

  • Need to set in place a participatory process that is clear, genuine, predictable and maintained over time – recognising that ‘participation’ is a highly complex matter

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Accountability institutional arrangements to support and effectiveness

  • Accountability

    • of all empowered participants to their constituents

    • i.e. to whom is the institution accountable?

    • in practice, how is this accountability evidenced?

  • Effectiveness

    • of the processes to really make a difference

    • i.e. does the capacity match the intent?

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Efficiency and Durability institutional arrangements to support

  • Efficiency

    • of the processes: that is, do the ends (outcomes) justify the means (costs, trade-offs, time, dollars)?

    • also, has there been, or is there, unnecessary duplication?

  • Durability

    • Need to move beyond short-lived or ad hoc initiatives

    • so the institution has sufficient longevity to persist, experiment, learn and adapt

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Conclusions institutional arrangements to support

  • Growing trend in Australia towards regionalisation of natural resource management/EPP

  • Lots of opportunities for people like yourselves to work with new regional bodies with enormous responsibilities for managing regional environments

  • Keep getting told by former EPPers we need people with EPP like skills out here!