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COMM 180 – SURVEY OF BROADCASTING AND CABLE Dr. George W. Crawford CURRENT ASSIGNMENT Continue reading Chapter 3 Write a paragraph summarizing the discussion that your group had on analog technology. We will cover pages 59 to 68 today. AUDIO AND VIDEO TECHNOLOGY Quick Facts:

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Presentation Transcript
current assignment
CURRENT ASSIGNMENT
  • Continue reading Chapter 3
  • Write a paragraph summarizing the discussion that your group had on analog technology.
  • We will cover pages 59 to 68 today.
audio and video technology
AUDIO AND VIDEO TECHNOLOGY
  • Quick Facts:
  • Human ear can hear: 40 to 12000 HZ
  • Compact disc: 20 to 20000 HZ
steps in signal processing
STEPS IN SIGNAL PROCESSING
  • Steps In Signal Processing:
  • Signal Generation
  • Amplification/Processing
  • Transmission
  • Reception
  • Storage and Retrieval
step 2 amplification processing
STEP 2: Amplification/Processing
  • Is Transduction:
  • Changing from one form of energy to another.
  • Need to boost the signals
  • Need to mix the signal with others
audio amplification processing
Audio Amplification/Processing
  • Amplifier – Definition: a device that boosts
  • Equalizer – a special frequency-dependent amplifier
  • Special Effects amplifier – Reverb,phasers, and time delay/speedup
audio amplification processing7
Audio Amplification/Processing
  • Mixing Consoles – “audio board”
  • Input signals, select signals, control signals, mix signals, combine signals, and route signals
  • Pots and sliding bars or faders produce a mix
  • Wave of the future is all computer (digital) mixing consoles and radio/TV stations.
video amplification processing
Video Amplification/Processing
  • Mixing Consoles – “The Switcher”
  • Buttons select camera that is on-line
  • Fader bars for audio and video
  • Special effects generators (usually digital)
  • Best known – “keying” on blue
video amplification processing9
Video Amplification/Processing
  • Digital Video Effects (DVE)
  • Freeze-frame
  • Stretching or rotating a picture
  • Mirror image
  • Special shapes for pictures
video amplification processing10
Video Amplification/Processing
  • Desktop Video
  • Use of PC to generate video
  • Camcorder/on-line to PC to storage
  • An Apple/Mac plus
step 3 signal transmission
STEP 3: Signal Transmission
  • Got to get the signal from point “A’ to point “B”
  • By air
  • By wire
  • By cable
  • By Internet
  • By ???????
audio transmission
Audio Transmission
  • Modulation actually does the work.
  • Carrier signal (fixed frequency BASE)
  • The audio signal is mixed in some way, either amplitude or frequency.
audio transmission13
Audio Transmission
  • Radio Frequencies
  • Medium Waves (MW) – 0.3 to 3MHz, AM radio is here
  • Very High Frequency (VHF) – 30 to 300MHz, 2-13 TV and FM are here
  • Ultra High Frequency (UHF) – 300 to 3GHz, 14-83 TV and microwave ovens are here
audio transmission14
Audio Transmission
  • Spectrum Management
  • How radio/TV service is administrated so there is not confusion and chaos
  • In the US: FCC is in control
audio transmission15
Audio Transmission
  • Radio Channels
  • 12000 radio stations in the US: 107 AM channels and 100 FM channels
  • Control of hours, power, antenna height and design is the control process
  • AM: 60 clear channels, 41 regional, 6 local
  • FM: In a zone – 80 commercial, 20 other
audio transmission16
Audio Transmission
  • Sidebands and Subcarriers
  • Sideband is above/below the carrier: stereo on FM
  • Subcarriers are a special signal in the stations frequency allocation: background music, stock reports, or utility load management on AM
video transmission
Video Transmission
  • Television Channels:
  • 1500 TV stations in the US. Each one uses 6MHz – equal to 30 FM and 600 AM stations
  • Video picture is 4MHz of AM signal
  • Audio in the picture is FM
  • Remainder is special guard bands to separate the signal information
video transmission18
Video Transmission
  • TV Allocations:
  • VHF – 2 to 6 and 7 to 13 are in this band
  • UHF – 14 to 83 are in this band
  • The higher the channel, the higher the power needed to transmit to a coverage area. Channel 2 needs 100kwatts, 7 need 316kwatts, and 14 needs 5000kwatts.
  • The higher the wattage the higher the problems
video transmission19
Video Transmission
  • High Definition TV
  • A real bag of worms
  • TV stations were given new “free” channel allocations and a deadline.
  • They were to meet the deadline and give their old channel allocations back to the FCC for reissue via auction.
  • But………
satellite transmission
Satellite Transmission
  • Satellite Terminology:
  • Geosynchronous orbits
  • C band – first satellites, 4 to 6 GHz
  • Ku band – latest, 12 to 14 GHz
satellite transmission21
Satellite Transmission
  • Direct Broadcast Satellites (DBS)
  • High power
  • Smaller dish
  • Can be two way
  • 25% of market
satellite transmission22
Satellite Transmission
  • Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)
  • Satellite to car
  • Just really being rolled out
wired transmission again
Wired Transmission (Again)
  • Cable Transmission
  • Coaxial cable
  • High, uniform power to receiver
  • Addressability
  • Pay-per-view
  • Fiber optic cable
  • 97% market penetration
homework assignment
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  • Continue reading Chapter 3
  • We will cover pages 68 to 74 on Friday