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Chapter 6 Classification Scientific name Heirarchy Taxonomic theory Nutrition Autotroph vs heterotroph Cell types prokaryote, plant, animal Domain and Kingdom overview. 0. 0. Classification putting organisms into groups based on similarities and differences.

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  • Chapter 6

  • Classification

    • Scientific name

    • Heirarchy

    • Taxonomic theory

  • Nutrition

    • Autotroph vs heterotroph

  • Cell types

    • prokaryote, plant, animal

  • Domain and Kingdom overview

0


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Classification putting organisms into groups based on similarities and differences

groups are called taxa (sing. taxon)

study of how groups are organized is called:

Taxonomy


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Taxonomy

Use Latin

Doesn’t change

“Everyone” speaks it


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Taxonomy

Example:

Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdominae fusco,

pedibus posteuis, glabris, utrinque margine ciliatis

Bee with soft short hairs, gray chest, dark brown abdomen,

legs with no hair, and small sacs with hair-like outgrowths along the edge


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picture of honey bee

Bee with soft short hairs, gray chest, dark brown abdomen,

legs with no hair, and small sacs with hair-like outgrowths along the edge


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Carl von Linné

Binomial nomenclature:

Two-part scientific name

Genus and species

Carolus Linneaus

“type specimens” in museums

(species don’t change)


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Example:

Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdominae fusco,

pedibus posteuis, glabris, utrinque margine ciliatis

Apis mellifera


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Binomial nomenclature

Genus capitalized

species not capitalized

Both italicized or underlined

Apis

mellifera

Scientific name:

Common name: honey bee


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Taxonomy: Hierarchy

But…what is a species?

A group of reproductively isolated organisms


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an example:

Equus equus

Equus asinus

62 chromosomes

64 chromosomes

Equus hemionus

? chromosomes


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general

specific

Taxonomy: Hierarchy

: Hierarchy

Domain 3 (Archeae, Bacteria, Eukarya)

A group of related phyla

Kingdom

Phylum

A group of related classes

A group of related orders

Class

A group of related families

Order

A group of related genera

Family

A group of related species

Genus

species Reproductively isolated organisms


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Taxonomy: Hierarchy

Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

species

Kings

Play

Chess

On

Fine

Green

sand


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0

fig 6-1


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general

specific

0

Taxonomy: Hierarchy

Eukarya

Animalia

Chordata

Mammalia

Primate

Hominidae

Homo

sapiens

Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species

Homo sapiens

H. sapiens

human


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0

Taxonomic theory

How do you decide who goes into what group?

Look at characteristics

Try to figure out which are the most “important”


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Taxonomy

An Exercise


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Taxonomy

Shape ? 5

Color ? 4

Size ? 3

??

  • parsimony

    • the simplest explanation


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?

?

?

0

Taxonomy

An Exercise

A

B

C

C


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Taxonomic theory

How do you decide who goes into what group?

  • birds, fishes, roses, insects, . . .

    • based on similarities and differences

    • anatomy,

molecular biology (DNA etc…)


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0

Taxonomic theory

How do you decide who goes into what group?

  • Describe evolutionary relationships

    • Looking at descendents

    • A group with a common ancestor would be a clade

      • (Greek, branch)

  • Study of groups and ancestry is cladistics


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    fig 5-1


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    box 6-1


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    box 6-2


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    One of the main characteristics we use to divide organisms into different groups is:

    cell type

    prokaryotic

    eukaryotic

    before nucleus

    true nucleus


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    box 6-2


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    0

    pg. 171


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    0

    Another question is:

    nutrition


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    0

    • Where does an organism get it’s energy?

    • (glucose)

    • Some organisms are self-feeding

      • autotrophic:hemosynthetic

    Nutrition:

    Photosynthetic

    Sunlight (energy) + CO2 + H2O ----Glucose + O2

    Chemosynthetic


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    0

    • Nutrition:

    • Where does an organism get it’s energy?

    • (glucose)

    • Some organisms are other-feeding

      • heterotrophic:

    Cellular respiration (includes Kreb’s cycle):

    Glucose + O2 ----CO2 + H2O + ATP (energy)


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    outside

    inside

    0

    • Nutrition:

    • Where does an organism get it’s energy?

    • (glucose)

    • Some organisms are other-feeding

      • heterotrophic:

    digestion

    Ingestive

    heterotroph

    Absorptive

    heterotroph


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    Possible origin of

    three cell types:

    0

    fig 6-2


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    Prokaryotic organisms

    all are unicellular

    0

    Eukaryotic organisms

    some are unicellular

    others are multicellular

    Reproduction

    asexual reproduction

    genetic uniformity

    sexual reproduction

    genetic diversity

    (advantage with natural selection)


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    History

    0

    • Pre 1800

      • 3 kingdoms: animal, mineral or vegetable ?

  • 1802

    • Biology - animal and plant kingdoms Lamarck

  • 1963

    • 5 kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

  • 2006

  • 6 kingdoms with three domains


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    0

    fig 6-3


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    6 kingdoms and three domains

    • Archaea (kingdom and domain)

      • aka., Archaebacteria

        • prokaryotic, unicellular

      • Live in special environments

        • (cow gut, thermal vents, hot springs)

    (many are chemosynthetic)


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    6 kingdoms and three domains

    0

    • Eubacteria (kingdom and domain)

    • common bacteria

    • blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria)

      • prokaryotic, unicellular (may live in colonies)

      • many cell shapes

      • rod, spheres, spirals

      • many cell arrangements

      • single, chains, clusters


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    0

    fig 6-4

    spheres: coccus

    rods: bacillus

    spirals spirochete

    chains: strepto-

    clusters: staphlo-

    two: diplo-

    four: tetrads

    endospores


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    • 6 kingdoms and three domains

    • Eubacteria (kingdom and domain)

    • common bacteria

    • blue-green bacterial (cyanobacteria)

      • prokaryotic, unicellular (may live in colonies)

      • many cell shapes

      • rod, spheres, spirals

      • many cell arrangements

      • single, chains, clusters

      • different cell walls

    0


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    0

    fig 6-4


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    0

    Symbiosis

    living

    together


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    0

    Symbiosis: Living together

    Bacteria Humans

    type of symbiosis

    benefit

    neutral

    commensalistic

    skin

    mutualistic

    benefit

    benefit

    E. coli

    parasitic

    benefit

    harmed

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis


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    bacteria and humans

    • Many can cause diseases:

    • pneumonia, STD, TB, anthrax, strep, etc., . . .

    • But many are beneficial:

      • decompose dead material (recycle chemicals)

      • food production: butter, cheese, coffee

      • nitrogen fixation:

      • genetic engineering:


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    Third domain

    Eukarya (Eucarya)

    Contains four kingdoms

    Domain (kingdom) Domain (kingdom)


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    0

    fig 6-3


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    Domain: Eukarya

    all eukaryotic cells (cell type)

    Four Kingdoms:

    (cell arrangement) (nutrition)

    Protista

    Plantae

    Mycota (Fungi)

    Animalia

    unicellular

    multicellular*

    multicellular

    multicellular

    all types*

    photosynthetic

    absorptive hetero-

    ingestive hetero-


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  • Single-celled (eukaryotic) organisms

    • Protozoa

    • (Gr. early animals)

  • Domain Eukarya

    ingestive heterotrophs

    Movement:

    pseudopod

    Amoeba

    cilia

    Paramecium, Tetrahymena

    flagellum

    Trypanosoma (sleeping sickness)

    none

    Plasmodium (malaria)

    Algae (photosynthetic) Euglena (plant kingdom)



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    • Domain Eukarya

      • Kingdom Protista

    • Single-celled (eukaryotic) organisms

      • Protozoa ingestive heterotrophs

      • (G. early animals

      • Algae photosynthetic Euglena (plant kingdom?)

    0


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    0

    cell membrane

    chloroplasts


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    0

    cell membrane

    chloroplasts


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    • Algae

      • “red tide”

      • diatoms

    0

    cell membrane

    chloroplasts


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    • Algae

      • “red tide”

      • diatoms

      • “seaweeds”

    0

    cell membrane

    chloroplasts

    fig 6-6


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    • benefits:

    • food/O2

    • fiber

    • wood/paper

    • coal

    • medicines

    • Domain Eukarya

      • Kingdom Plantae


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    the “decomposers”

    eukaryotic cells

    absorptive heterotrophs

    hyphae

    • long , thin cylinders of cytoplasm


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    0

    the “decomposers”

    eukaryotic cells

    absorptive heterotrophs

    hyphae

    • long , thin cylinders of cytoplasm

    • hyphae form a mycelium


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    the “decomposers”

    eukaryotic cells

    absorptive heterotrophs

    hyphae

    spores dispersal


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    0

    fig 6-12 Morel


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    0

    fig 6-12 Rhizopus


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    0

    fig 6-12 Amanita


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    0

    Athelete’s foot


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    • benefits/harms

      • food

      • diseases (human, plant)

      • decompose waste

    SOME REVIEW/PERSPECTIVE


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    • Chapter 6

    • Taxonomy

    • A. Hierarchy scientific name:

      • Domain binomial, Latin

      • Kingdom commom name

        • Phylum

      • Class

    • Order

    • Family

    • Genus

    • species


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    • B. Taxonomic Theory

      • different groups (taxa)

      • cladistics

      • anatomical / molecular /evolutionary relationships

    • C. Different Cell types

      • Prokaryotic

      • Eukaryotic

        • Animal

        • Plant

      • Table of comparison (pg 171)


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    • D. Different nutritions

      • Autotrophic vs. heterotrophic

      • Ingestive vs. absorptive

      • Cellular respiration vs. photosynthesis

    Glucose + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP (energy)

    Sunlight energy + CO2 + H2O Glucose + O2


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    E. Three domains: Six Kingdoms

    • Archaea Archaea

      • Eubacteria Eubacteria

      • Eukarya

      • Protista

      • Plantae

      • Mycota

      • Animalia

    • Make a table showing major differences


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    • F. Archaea

      • Bacteria that live in unusual environments

  • G. Eubacteria

    • common bacteria

    • different shapes/arrangements/cell walls

    • symbiosis (examples)

    • benefit/ harm


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    • H. Protista

      • Single cell eukaryotic

      • Protozoa grouped by locomotion

      • Amoeba, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Euglena

        • (red tides, diatoms, seaweeds)


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    J. Mycota (Fungi)

    • Eukaryotic cells, hyphae

    • Absorptive heterotrophs (the “decomposers”)

    • Examples/Benefits/Harms


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    • eukaryotic cells, multicellular

    • ingestive heterotrophs “consumers”

    • lots of diversity

      • symmetry

      • digestive system

      • layers

      • cavities

      • cephalization, embryo, organization, segmentation

    • Domain Eukarya

      • K. Kingdom Animalia

    0


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    **

    *

    *

    *

    **

    **


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    0


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    0

    Annelida: Earthworms

    Fig 30.14


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    0

    Other Annelids

    leeches

    clam worms


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    Annelida: leeches

    0

    Fig. 30A


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    0

    Arthropod: diversity

    Fig 30.19


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    July 2003

    Great Smokies, TN



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    Chordata: Birds

    FIG 6-18







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    Chordata: Jawless fish

    lamprey

    no jaws

    jaws




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    Chordata: Mammals

    0

    Sub-class: monotremes

    duckbill platypus spiny anteater


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    Chordata: Mammals

    0

    Sub-class: marsupials

    koala bear

    kangaroo

    opposum


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    Chordata: Mammals

    0

    Sub-class: placentals


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    July 2003

    Great Smokies, TN






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    0


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    0


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    0


    Slide98 l.jpg

    0



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    0

    Echinodermata

    • Examples:

      • sea star


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    0

    Echinodermata

    • Examples:

      • sea star

      • sea urchin


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    0

    Echinodermata

    • Examples:

      • sea star

      • sea urchin

      • sand dollar


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    0

    Echinodermata

    • Examples:

      • sea star

      • sea urchin

      • sand dollar

      • sea cucumber


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    0

    Mollusca diversity


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    0

    Mollusca diversity



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    Acaris

    Nematoda (Roundworms)

    0

    Fig 30.9


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    Nematoda (Roundworms)

    0

    Fig 30.9


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    Nematoda (Roundworms)

    0

    Fig 30.9


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    Nematoda (Roundworms)

    0

    Fig 30.9



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    Platyhelminthes: (flatworms)

    0



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    **

    *

    **

    Make a tree with groups, subgroups, etc., with

    simple on bottom, more complex as you move up

    *

    **

    **


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    E

    D

    C

    B

    F

    A

    Draw a diagram showing relationships between different groups (similar groups should be close together…)


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    0


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    Arthropoda

    Annelida

    6 Mollusca

    Chordates

    5 Echinoderms

    0

    7 Nematoda

    8 Flatworms

    4 Cnidaria

    9 Sponges


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    0


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    11 birds 15 mammals

    16 reptiles

    10 amphibians

    12 bony fish

    13 cart. fish

    14 jawless fish

    0

    Arthropoda

    Annelida

    6 Mollusca

    Chordates

    5 Echinoderms

    7 Nematoda

    8 Flatworms

    4 Cnidaria

    9 Sponges


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    0

    backbone

    body cavity

    no backbone

    true body cavity

    no backbone

    no true cavity


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    • K. Animalia

      • Eucaryotic cells

      • Ingestive heterotrophs

    • Some basic characteristics:

      • Symmetry (3 types)

      • Digestive system (2 types)

      • Layers (none, 2 or 3)

      • Cavity (none false, real)

      • Organizational level (cells, tissues, organs)

      • Cephalization

      • Segmentation

      • Embryo organization


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    • K. Animalia

      • Nine Phyla

      • Distinctive characteristics and examples from each

        • Porifera

        • Cnidaria

        • Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)

        • Roundworms (Nematoda)

        • Mollusca

        • Annelida

        • Arthropoda

        • Echinodermata

        • Chordata

        • (7 classes too)


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    Humans (Homo sapiens)

    • Chordates (phylum)

    • Mammals (class)

    • Primates (order)

      • finger mobility

      • opposable thumb

      • friction ridges (hand and feet)

      • binocular vision

      • expanded brain cortex

      • Single birth

      • Long, intensive parental care

      • 0__________________________21 days

  • chick

  • mouse


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    • Humans (Homo sapiens)

    • Chordates (phylum)

    • Mammals (class)

    • Primates (order)

    0


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    • Humans (Homo sapiens)

    • Chordates (phylum)

    • Mammals (class)

    • Primates (order)

    • Hominidae (family)

    • walk upright

    0


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    • Humans (Homo sapiens)

    • Chordates (phylum)

    • Mammals (class)

    • Primates (order)

    • Hominidae (family)

    0


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    • Humans (Homo sapiens)

    • Chordates (phylum)

    • Mammals (class)

    • Primates (order)

    • Hominidae (family)

    0


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    0

    Brain size

    Use of tools/fire

    Culture/activities


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