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Animal Science 429: Sheep . Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Immunity Danielle Pogge . Outline . Immunity background Antioxidants and immunity Minerals and related disorders . Immunity background . Health/Immunological issues in the industry: Internal parasites/worms

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animal science 429 sheep

Animal Science 429: Sheep

Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition

Immunity

Danielle Pogge

outline
Outline
  • Immunity background
  • Antioxidants and immunity
  • Minerals and related disorders
immunity background
Immunity background
  • Health/Immunological issues in the industry:
    • Internal parasites/worms
    • Digestive disorders
    • Abortion diseases
    • Foot rot
  • Sheep Normals:
    • Body Temperature: ~102°F
    • Respiration rate: ~20/min
    • Heartbeat: ~75/min
maintain healthy sheep
Maintain Healthy Sheep
  • Management:
    • Buy healthy sheep
    • Minimize stressors
      • Adequate space, nutrition, air quality, social
    • Biosecurity measures:
      • Isolate new sheep
      • Monitor visitors (boot covers, etc)
      • Clean stock trailers and scales
      • Shows = place to pick up diseases
innate vs adaptive
Innate vs. Adaptive
  • Innate immunity = No Memory and Fast
    • Non-specific!
    • Surface barriers: skin and mucous membranes
    • Internal defense: fever, phagocytes, NK cells, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins
  • Adaptive immunity = Memory but delayed
    • Antigen specific!
    • Developed over lifetime:
      • Humoral immunity: B cells (bone marrow)
      • Cellular immunity: T cells (thymus)
  • Can’t have Adaptive without Innate!
the immune response
The Immune Response
  • Initiation:
    • Fever, swelling, aching, vasodialation
    • Energy repartitioning to synthesize acute phase proteins (inflammatory mediators)
      • Reduction in production efficiency
    • Activation of Adaptive immune response
    • Immunological memory
  • Resolution:
    • Release of anti-inflammatory mediators (TGF-B and IL-10)
    • Repair tissues (ROS damage)
    • Down-regulate pro-inflammatory signals
vaccination response
Vaccination Response
  • Immunological Memory
    • Initial response (1°) delayed
    • Second exposure (2°) = Rapid response
        • Mobilize lymphocytes
immunity and production
Immunity and Production
  • Influence of an immune response on production:
    • Hypermetabolic = Inefficient!
      • Decrease anabolic processes, focused on catabolism
        • Mobilization of nutrients for immune support
          • Protein = cytokine production not growth/maintenance
          • Lipid = reduction in adipose mass
      • Immune response reactions are expensive (calories and protein) for producers
        • Reduction in growth and production
          • Longer days on feed (finishers)
          • Loss of lambs or ewes (abortions/death)
    • Increase susceptibility to secondary infections
      • GI and lungs targets (mucosal surfaces)
antioxidants and immunity
Antioxidants and Immunity
  • Antioxidants = Prevention of Oxidative Stress
    • Defined as: molecules that prevent cell damage against free radicals and are critical for maintaining optimum health
      • Common antioxidants:
        • Vitamins (A, C, D, E) and Minerals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Fe)
  • Free Radicals/ROS
    • Normal respiration/metabolism (mitochondria)
    • Infection (mode of killing = release ROS)
    • UV exposure
  • Oxidative Stress (Pro-oxidants vs. Antioxidants)
    • Decreased cell function (apoptosis) and gut integrity = increase pathogen entry to system = Immune reaction!
vitamins and immunity
Vitamins and Immunity
  • Vitamin A (beta-carotene):
    • Epithelial cell generation (gene functions)
      • Epithelial cell barrier function (host defense)
    • Development/differentiation of lymphocytes
    • Role in activation of T-lymphocytes
  • Vitamin D:
    • Enhanced bacterial killing by macrophages
  • Vitamin E and C:
    • ROS scavengers
trace minerals and immunity
Trace Minerals and Immunity
  • Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Se
    • SOD
    • Catalase
    • GSH-Px
  • Immune response
    • Activation of macrophages
    • Killing mechanism = release ROS
    • Increase oxidative damage/stress
factors influencing availability
Factors influencing availability
  • Bioavailability:
    • A measure of the use of a mineral/vitamin to support a physiological function (Dr. Hansen)
  • Influencing factors:
    • Age, stage of production, gender, species, genetics, pH/solubility of mineral, gut integrity/immune status, antagonisms, stress, heat, soil status, storage….
vitamins a d e c
Vitamins A, D, E, C
  • Sources:
    • A: forages (carotenoids)
    • D: Sun exposure (cholesterol  1, 25 OH-D3)

Plants (D2)

    • E: Leafy plants (only produced by plants)
    • C: Glucose  Vitamin C (liver)
  • Deficiency:
    • A: decreased growth, retained placenta, bone malformation, night blindness
    • D: rickets (young), osteomalacia (older)
    • E: white muscle disease, stiffness, arched back
    • C: scurvy (collagen malformation)
biotin
Biotin
  • B vitamins: produced by bacteria in rumen
  • Functions:
    • Involved in CHO, lipid, and protein metabolism
      • Keratin production (dermis = skin, hair, hooves, etc)
  • Deficiency:
    • High concentrate diets may decrease biotin production
      • Soft hooves that easily crack
  • Supplementation:
    • Study: 0.21, 3.26, 5.25mg
    • Hoof health
      • Rams?

Bampidis et al. (2006) Animal Feed Science and Technology

mineral classifications
Mineral classifications:
  • Macros = required in large amounts (%)
    • Ca, P, K, S, Na, Mg, Cl
  • Micros = required in small amounts (ppm/ppb)
    • Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Se, I, Co
calcium ca phosphorus p
Calcium (Ca) & Phosphorus (P)
  • Source:
    • Forages = Ca high, P low
    • Cereal grains = P high, Ca low
  • Supplement Sources:
    • Limestone (Ca)
    • Dicalcium phosphate (Ca, P)
  • Requirements (based on percent diet):
    • Ca: P Ratio: 1.5-2: 1
    • 0.2 -0.82% Ca (age dependent)
      • No toxic level (homeostasis, excretion to urine)
    • 0.16 – 0.38% P
      • Phytate decrease availability of Ca, P, Mg
        • Ruminants microbes = phytase (break phytate)
ca and p
Ca and P
  • Functions:
    • Bone mineralization (Hydroxyapatite)
    • Ca:
      • Muscle contraction and degradation
        • Protease calpain
      • Resting membrane potential (K)
    • P:
      • High energy bonds (ATP)
      • Phospholipids (membranes)
  • Deficiency
    • Rickets, osteomalacia, osteoperosis
    • Kidney stones (urinary calculi)
    • Antagonist with other minerals: Zn, Fe, Mg
    • Decreased growth and reproduction
urinary calculi
Urinary Calculi
  • Male sheep (wethers and rams)
    • Small urinary tract design
  • Kidney stone types:
    • Phosphates, Ca oxalates; Silica
  • Cause:
    • High concentrate diets
      • Low Ca, High P
  • Prevention:
    • Adequate water intake
    • Salt (increase water intake)
    • Ammonium Cl or sulfate
    • Adequate Ca:P ratio 1.5-2: 1
    • Do not add P to the diet
electrolytes
Electrolytes
  • Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chloride (Cl), Magnesium (Mg):
    • Salt (Na, Cl); Ammoninum Chloride (Cl); Mg oxide
  • Requirement:
    • 0.09 - 0.18% Na
    • 0.5 – 0.8 % K
    • 0.12- 0.18% Mg
  • Functions:
    • Action potential (depolarization)
      • Nerve conduction and muscle contraction (K)
    • Osmotic pressure (electrolytes)
    • Nutrient Absorption (Na), HCl production (Cl)
    • Acid-Base Balance
    • Enzymes for CHO and protein synthesis
    • Associated with P (Mg)
      • Phospholipids and enzyme stabilization, DNA/RNA backbones
  • Deficiency/Toxicity:
    • Reduced growth, production, and feed efficiency
    • Muscle weakness (tetany)
grass tetany
Grass Tetany
  • Hypomagnesia; “Grass staggers”
  • Symptoms:
    • Sensitivity to touch, trembling of facial muscles
    • Stiff movements, tetanic spasms of all limbs
  • Cause:
    • Low blood Mg and high K
      • Spring grass = low Mg and high K
      • Mineral imbalance
      • High K inhibits Mg absorption
  • Prevention:
    • Supplement ewes on pasture with Mg
sulfur s
Sulfur (S)
  • S in feeds:
    • S-AA, DDGS, sulfates (supplement)
  • Requirement:
    • 0.14- 0.26 %
      • Microbe health (S-AA and S-B vitamins)
  • Functions:
    • Component of S AA (Met, Cysteine, Cystine, Taurine)
    • Component of B vit (Thiamin and Biotin)
    • Wool component (curling/crimping—disulfide bonds)
    • Redox reactions
      • Disulfide bonds—sulfhydryl groups
      • Glutathione synthesis
        • Detoxify
sulfur
Sulfur
  • Deficiency:
    • Decreased digestibility and protein synthesis
    • Reduced wool growth or shedding growth
  • Toxicity:
    • High S diets (EtOH byproducts) or high S water
      • H2S production in rumen = toxic
    • Reduced intake and gain
    • Polioencephalomalacia (PEM)
      • Brain lesions and blindness
      • Treat: dexamethasone and thamine
        • Gradual ration changes
        • Provide roughage (keeps pH up)
trace minerals copper cu
Trace Minerals: Copper (Cu)
  • Requirements:
    • Limited tolerance for Cu (7-11 ppm, Toxic: 25 ppm)
        • Cattle and swine feed high in Cu
    • Breed susceptibility
      • Texel = poor at absorbing Cu
  • Functions:
    • Enzymes (collagen formation and immunity)
      • Cu-Zn SOD– remove ROS
    • Keratin (wool) production
copper cu
Copper (Cu)
  • Deficiency:
    • Cause: dietary antagonisms (Mo, S) –thiomolybdates
    • Decreased immunity
      • SOD, cytochromeoxidase
    • “Sway-back”
      • Brittle bones and stringy/loss of wool
  • Toxicity:
    • Accumulation of excess Cu
    • Symptoms:
      • Lethargic, anemic, thirst, red urine, jaundice
    • Death = 1-2 d after symptoms appear
  • Treatment
    • Prevention preferred (do not supplement Cu)
    • Drench of 10 - 50 mg ammonium molybdate and 0.5- 1.0 g Na sulfate
zinc zn
Zinc (Zn)
  • Requirements:
    • 20 - 30 ppm (max = 750 ppm)
  • Functions:
    • Enzyme cofactor
      • Nucleic acid, protein, and CHO metabolism
    • Immune component
      • SOD with Cu
  • Deficiency:
    • Reduced growth, feed intake, feed efficiency
    • Impaired immune response
    • Foot lesions
  • Foot Rot Treatment
    • Zn sulfate
selenium se
Selenium (Se)
  • Requirement: narrow window– 0.1 – 0.3 ppm
    • 2 ppm = toxic
  • Functions:
    • Immunity (GSH-Px: blood)
        • Remove ROS – decrease oxidative stress/damage
  • Deficiency:
    • White Muscle Disease
      • Prevent: Selenium/Vitamin E injection
    • Decrease repro performance
    • Increase lamb mortality
  • Toxicity:
    • Soil status = in forage
    • Reduced gain and intake
    • Lameness
    • Loss of hair/wool
white muscle disease
White Muscle Disease
  • Symptoms:
    • Stiff rear legs/arched back
    • Sudden death
    • Aspiration pneumonia
    • Poor suckling
      • Se required for tongue muscles
    • Decreased reproduction
  • Prevention:
    • Vitamin E/Se injection prior to lambing
    • Provide adequate vitamin E to ewes
      • High grain = low E
      • Milk is primary source of E to newborns
iodine i
Iodine (I)
  • Requirement:
    • 0.1 to 0.8 ppm; 50 ppm = toxic
  • Goiter
    • Symptoms:
      • Enlarged thyroid
      • Poor wool coat at birth
      • Low survival
    • Prevention:
      • Iodized salt
      • Keep in mind goitergens (kale, etc.)
summary
Summary
  • Vitamins and minerals are essential for many processes in the body
  • Deficiencies and toxicities can result in a reduction in performance
  • Proper management can eliminate a lot of disorders