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Interest Grabber. Section 11-1. Analyzing Inheritance. Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance, scientists have experimented with breeding various plants and animals.

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Analyzing Inheritance


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analyzing inheritance

Interest Grabber

Section 11-1

Analyzing Inheritance
  • Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance, scientists have experimented with breeding various plants and animals.
  • In each experiment shown in the table on the next slide, two pea plants with different characteristics were bred. Then, the offspring produced were bred to produce a second generation of offspring. Consider the data and answer the questions that follow.
slide2

Parents

Long stems  short stems

Red flowers  white flowers

Green pods  yellow pods

Round seeds  wrinkled seeds

Yellow seeds  green seeds

First Generation

All long

All red

All green

All round

All yellow

Second Generation

787 long: 277 short

705 red: 224 white

428 green: 152 yellow

5474 round: 1850 wrinkled

6022 yellow: 2001 green

Interest Grabber continued

Section 11-1

  • 1. In the first generation of each experiment, how do the characteristics of the offspring compare to the parents’ characteristics?
  • 2. How do the characteristics of the second generation compare to the characteristics of the first generation?
slide3

Section Outline

Section 11-1

  • 11–1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

A. Gregor Mendel’s Peas

B. Genes and Dominance

C. Segregation

1. The F1 Cross

2. Explaining the F1 Cross

slide4

Principles of Dominance

Section 11-1

P Generation

F1 Generation

F2 Generation

Tall

Short

Tall

Tall

Tall

Tall

Tall

Short

slide5

Principles of Dominance

Section 11-1

P Generation

F1 Generation

F2 Generation

Tall

Short

Tall

Tall

Tall

Tall

Tall

Short

slide6

Principles of Dominance

Section 11-1

P Generation

F1 Generation

F2 Generation

Tall

Short

Tall

Tall

Tall

Tall

Tall

Short

slide7

Figure 11-3 Mendel’s Seven F1 Crosses on Pea Plants

Section 11-1

Seed Shape

Seed Color

Seed Coat

Color

Pod

Shape

Pod Color

Flower Position

Plant Height

Round

Yellow

Gray

Smooth

Green

Axial

Tall

Wrinkled

Green

White

Constricted

Yellow

Terminal

Short

Round

Yellow

Gray

Smooth

Green

Axial

Tall

tossing coins

Interest Grabber

Section 11-2

Tossing Coins
  • If you toss a coin, what is the probability of getting heads? Tails? If you toss a coin 10 times, how many heads and how many tails would you expect to get? Working with a partner, have one person toss a coin
  • ten times while the other person tallies the results on a sheet of paper. Then, switch tasks to produce a separate tally of the second set of 10 tosses.
slide9

Interest Grabber continued

Section 11-2

1. Assuming that you expect 5 heads and 5 tails in 10 tosses, how do the results of your tosses compare? How about the results of your partner’s tosses? How close was each set of results to what was expected?

2. Add your results to those of your partner to produce a total of 20 tosses. Assuming that you expect 10 heads and 10 tails in 20 tosses, how close are these results to what was expected?

3. If you compiled the results for the whole class, what results would you expect?

4. How do the expected results differ from the observed results?

slide10

Section Outline

Section 11-2

  • 11–2 Probability and Punnett Squares

A. Genetics and Probability

B. Punnett Squares

C. Probability and Segregation

D. Probabilities Predict Averages

slide11

Tt X Tt Cross

Section 11-2

slide12

Tt X Tt Cross

Section 11-2

height in humans

Interest Grabber

Section 11-3

Height in Humans
  • Height in pea plants is controlled by one of two alleles; the allele for a tall plant is the dominant allele, while the allele for a short plant is the ecessive one. What about people? Are the factors that determine height more complicated in humans?
slide14

Interest Grabber continued

Section 11-3

  • 1. Make a list of 10 adults whom you know. Next to the name of each adult, write his or her approximate height in feet and inches.
  • 2. What can you observe about the heights of the ten people?
  • 3. Do you think height in humans is controlled by 2 alleles, as it is in pea plants? Explain your answer.
slide15

Section Outline

Section 11-3

  • 11–3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics

A. Independent Assortment

1. The Two-Factor Cross: F1

2. The Two-Factor Cross: F2

B. A Summary of Mendel’s Principles

C. Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles

1. Incomplete Dominance

2. Codominance

3. Multiple Alleles

4. Polygenic Traits

D. Applying Mendel’s Principles

E. Genetics and the Environment

slide16

Alleles are

separated during

gamete formation

“Factors”

determine

traits

Some alleles

are dominant,

and some alleles

are recessive

Pea

plants

Law of

Dominance

Law of

Segregation

Concept Map

Section 11-3

Gregor

Mendel

concluded that

experimented with

which is called the

which is called the

how many chromosomes

Interest Grabber

Section 11-4

How Many Chromosomes?
  • Normal human body cells each contain 46 chromosomes. The cell division process that body cells undergo is called mitosis and produces daughter cells that are virtually identical to the parent cell. Working with a partner, discuss and answer the questions that follow.
slide21

Interest Grabber continued

Section 11-4

  • 1. How many chromosomes would a sperm or an egg contain if either one resulted from the process of mitosis?
  • 2. If a sperm containing 46 chromosomes fused with an egg containing 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would the resulting fertilized egg contain? Do you think this would create any problems in the developing embryo?
  • 3. In order to produce a fertilized egg with the appropriate number of chromosomes (46), how many chromosomes should each sperm and egg have?
slide22

Section Outline

Section 11-4

  • 11–4 Meiosis

A. Chromosome Number

B. Phases of Meiosis

1. Meiosis I

2. Meiosis II

C. Gamete Formation

D. Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis

slide23

Crossing-Over

Section 11-4

slide24

Crossing-Over

Section 11-4

slide25

Crossing-Over

Section 11-4

slide26

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I

slide27

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I

Meiosis I

slide28

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I

Meiosis I

slide29

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I

slide30

Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I

slide31

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.

slide32

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.

slide33

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.

slide34

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.

slide35

Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.

forever linked

Interest Grabber

Section 11-5

Forever Linked?
  • Some genes appear to be inherited together, or “linked.” If two genes
  • are found on the same chromosome, does it mean they are linked forever?
  • Study the diagram, which shows four genes labeled A–E and a–e, and then answer the questions on the next slide.
slide37

Interest Grabber continued

Section 11-5

  • In how many places can crossing over result in
  • genes A and b being on the same chromosome?
  • 2. In how many places can crossing over result in genes A and c being on the same chromosome? Genes A and e?
  • 3. How does the distance between two genes on a chromosome affect the chances that crossing over will recombine those genes?
slide38

Section Outline

Section 11-5

  • 11–5 Linkage and Gene Maps

A. Gene Linkage

B. Gene Maps

slide39

Comparative Scale of a Gene Map

Section 11-5

Mapping of Earth’s Features

Mapping of Cells, Chromosomes, and Genes

Cell

Earth

Chromosome

Country

Chromosome fragment

State

Gene

City

People

Nucleotide base pairs

slide40

Figure 11-19 Gene Map of the Fruit Fly

Section 11-5

Exact location on chromosomes

Chromosome 2

video contents

Videos

Video Contents
  • Click a hyperlink to choose a video.
  • Meiosis Overview
  • Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 1
  • Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 2
  • Segregation of Chromosomes
  • Crossing Over
video 1

Video 1

Video 1

Meiosis Overview

  • Click the image to play the video segment.
video 2

Video 2

Video 2

Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 1

  • Click the image to play the video segment.
video 3

Video 3

Video 3

Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 2

  • Click the image to play the video segment.
video 4

Video 4

Video 4

Segregation of Chromosomes

  • Click the image to play the video segment.
video 5

Video 5

Video 5

Crossing Over

  • Click the image to play the video segment.
internet

Go Online

Internet
  • The latest discoveries in genetics
  • Interactive test
  • Articles on genetics
  • For links on Punnett squares, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-4112.
  • For links on Mendelian genetics, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-4113.
  • For links on meiosis, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-4114.
section 1 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

Section 1 Answers
  • 1. In the first generation of each experiment, how do the characteristics of the offspring compare to the parents’ characteristics?
  • All offspring had the same characteristic, which was like one of the parents’. The other characteristic seemed to have disappeared.
  • 2. How do the characteristics of the second generation compare to the characteristics of the first generation?
  • Both characteristics appeared in this generation. The characteristic that had “disappeared” in the first generation did not appear as often as the other characteristic. (It appears about 25 percent of the time.)
section 2 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

1. Assuming that you expect 5 heads and 5 tails in 10 tosses, how do the results of your tosses compare? How about the results of your partner’s tosses? How close was each set of results to what was expected?

Results will vary, but should be close to 5 heads and 5 tails.

2. Add your results to those of your partner to produce a total of 20 tosses. Assuming that you expect 10 heads and 10 tails in 20 tosses, how close are these results to what was expected?

The results for 20 tosses may be closer to the predicted 10 heads and 10 tails.

3. If you compiled the results for the whole class, what results would you expect?

The results for the entire class should be even closer to the number predicted by the rules of probability.

4. How do the expected results differ from the observed results?

The observed results are usually slightly different from the expected results.

Section 2 Answers
section 3 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

Section 3 Answers
  • 1. Make a list of 10 adults whom you know. Next to the name of each adult, write his or her approximate height in feet and inches.
  • Check students’ answers to make sure they are realistic.
  • 2. What can you observe about the heights of the ten people?
  • Students should notice that there is a range of heights in humans.
  • 3. Do you think height in humans is controlled by 2 alleles, as it is in pea plants? Explain your answer.
  • No, height does not seem to be controlled by two alleles, as it is in pea plants. Height in humans can vary greatly and is not just found in tall and short phenotypes.
section 4 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

Section 4 Answers
  • 1. How many chromosomes would a sperm or an egg contain if either one resulted from the process of mitosis?
  • 46 chromosomes
  • 2. If a sperm containing 46 chromosomes fused with an egg containing 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would the resulting fertilized egg contain? Do you think this would create any problems in the developing embryo?
  • 46 + 46 = 92; a developing embryo would not survive if it contained 92 chromosomes.
  • 3. In order to produce a fertilized egg with the appropriate number of chromosomes (46), how many chromosomes should each sperm and egg have?
  • Sperm and egg should each have 23 chromosomes.
section 5 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

Section 5 Answers
  • 1. In how many places can crossing over result in genes A and b being on the same chromosome?
  • One (between A and B)
  • 2. In how many places can crossing over result in genes A and c being on the same chromosome? Genes A and e?
  • Two (between A and B and A and C); Four (between A and B, A and C, A and D, and A and E)
  • 3. How does the distance between two genes on a chromosome affect the chances that crossing over will recombine those genes?
  • The farther apart the genes are, the more likely they are to be recombined through crossing over.
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End of Custom Shows
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