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Matthew 5:5 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. General Psychology. The Need for Psychological Science. Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations Hypothesis a testable prediction

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General Psychology


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general psychology

Matthew 5:5

Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled.

General Psychology

the need for psychological science
The Need for Psychological Science
  • Theory
    • an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
  • Hypothesis
    • a testable prediction
    • often implied by a theory
the need for psychological science1
The Need for Psychological Science
  • Operational Definition
    • a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables
    • Example-
      • intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
    • I love tacos…
the need for psychological science2
The Need for Psychological Science
  • Replication
    • repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances
    • usually with different participants in different situations
experimentation
Experimentation
  • Experiment
    • an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)
    • by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors
experimentation1
Experimentation
  • Placebo
    • an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
  • Double-blind Procedure*
    • both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo
    • commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
experimentation2
Experimentation
  • Experimental Condition
    • the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
  • Control Condition
    • the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment
    • serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
experimentation3
Experimentation
  • Random Assignment
    • assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance
    • minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups
experimentation4
Experimentation
  • Independent Variable
    • the experimental factor that is manipulated
    • the variable whose effect is being studied
  • Dependent Variable
    • the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
    • in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process
correlation and causation
Correlation and Causation

Correlation does not mean causation!

or

reliability and validity on target
Reliability and Validity on Target

Rifle Rifle Rifle

Low Reliability High Reliability Reliable but

Not Valid Valid Not Valid

(Target A) (Target B) (Target C)

what is the process in conducting research
What Is the Process in Conducting Research?
  • Institutional review board (IRB)
    • Purpose to ensure the health and safety of participants in psychological studies
    • Panel of both scientists and nonscientists who ensure the protection and welfare of research participants by formally reviewing the methodologies and procedures of proposed studies

We will address some of the other assumptions in this book mentioned in this chapterlater in the semester.

what is the process in conducting research1
What Is the Process in Conducting Research?
  • Institutional review board (IRB)
    • Purpose to ensure the health and safety of participants in psychological studies
    • Panel of both scientists and nonscientists who ensure the protection and welfare of research participants by formally reviewing the methodologies and procedures of proposed studies

We will address some of the other assumptions in this book mentioned in this chapterlater in the semester.

what is the process in conducting research2
What Is the Process in Conducting Research?
  • Once the data are collected, the researcher must analyze them.
    • Statistical analysis
      • Descriptive statistics
        • Numbers that summarize and describe the behavior or characteristics of a particular sample or participants in a study
      • Inferential statistics
        • Mathematical analyses that are used to determine whether the data support or do not support the research hypothesis
    • Is there a significant difference?
    • Report results
commonly used scientific methods
Commonly Used Scientific Methods
  • Description is the goal of observational research.
    • Naturalistic observation
      • A scientific method that describes how people or animals behave in their natural environment
    • Participant observation
      • A descriptive scientific method in which a group is studied from within by a researcher who records behavior as it occurs in its natural environment
    • Case study
      • A descriptive scientific method involving in-depth analysis of a single subject, usually a person